"এৰিষ্ট'টল"ৰ বিভিন্ন সংশোধনসমূহৰ মাজৰ পাৰ্থক্য

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Each of the four earthly elements has its natural place. All that is earthly tends toward the center of the universe, i.e., the center of the Earth. Water tends toward a sphere surrounding the center. Air tends toward a sphere surrounding the water sphere. Fire tends toward the lunar sphere (in which the Moon orbits). When elements are moved out of their natural place, they naturally move back towards it. This is "natural motion"—motion requiring no extrinsic cause. So, for example, in water, earthy bodies sink while air bubbles rise up; in air, rain falls and flame rises. Outside all the other spheres, the heavenly, fifth element, manifested in the stars and planets, moves in the perfection of circles.
Aristotle defined [[Motion (physics)|motion]] as the actuality of a potentiality ''as such''.<ref>''Physics'' 201a10–11, 201a27–29, 201b4–5</ref> Aquinas suggested that the passage be understood literally; that motion can indeed be understood as the active fulfillment of a potential, as a transition toward a potentially possible state. Because [[Aristotle#Substance, potentiality and actuality|actuality and potentiality]] are normally opposites in Aristotle, other commentators either suggest that the wording which has come down to us is erroneous, or that the addition of the "as such" to the definition is critical to understanding it.<ref>{{Citation|last=Sachs|first=Joe|title=Aristotle: Motion and its Place in Nature|year=2005|url=http://www.iep.utm.edu/aris-mot/|journal=Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy}}</ref>
Aristotle's predecessor, Plato, argued that all things have a universal form, which could be either a property, or a relation to other things. When we look at an apple, for example, we see an apple, and we can also analyze a form of an apple. In this distinction, there is a particular apple and a universal form of an apple. Moreover, we can place an apple next to a book, so that we can speak of both the book and apple as being next to each other.
===জীৱবিজ্ঞান আৰু ভেষজবিদ্যা===
===Biology and medicine===
In Aristotelian science, especially in biology, things he saw himself have stood the test of time better than his retelling of the reports of others, which contain error and superstition. He dissected animals but not humans; his ideas on how the human body works have been almost entirely superseded.
Aristotle is the earliest natural historian whose work has survived in some detail. Aristotle certainly did research on the natural history of [[Lesbos]], and the surrounding seas and neighbouring areas. The works that reflect this research, such as ''[[History of Animals]]'', ''[[Generation of Animals]]'', and ''[[Parts of Animals]]'', contain some observations and interpretations, along with sundry myths and mistakes. The most striking passages are about the sea-life visible from observation on Lesbos and available from the catches of fishermen. His observations on [[catfish]], [[Electric ray|electric fish]] (''[[Torpedo (genus)|Torpedo]]'') and angler-fish are detailed, as is his writing on [[cephalopod]]s, namely, ''[[Octopus]]'', ''Sepia'' ([[cuttlefish]]) and the paper nautilus (''[[Argonauta argo]]''). His description of the [[hectocotylus|hectocotyl arm]], used in sexual reproduction, was widely disbelieved until its rediscovery in the 19th century. He separated the aquatic mammals from fish, and knew that sharks and rays were part of the group he called Selachē ([[selachians]]).<ref name="Singer, Charles 1931">Singer, Charles. ''A short history of biology''. Oxford 1931.</ref>
====জীৱজগতৰ শ্ৰেণীবিভাজন====
====Classification of living things====
Aristotle's classification of living things contains some elements which still existed in the 19th century. What the modern zoologist would call vertebrates and invertebrates, Aristotle called 'animals with blood' and 'animals without blood' (he did not know that complex invertebrates do make use of [[hemoglobin]], but of a different kind from vertebrates). Animals with blood were divided into live-bearing (humans and mammals), and egg-bearing (birds and fish). Invertebrates ('animals without blood') are insects, crustacea (divided into non-shelled – cephalopods – and shelled) and testacea (molluscs). In some respects, this incomplete classification is better than that of [[Linnaeus]], who crowded the invertebrata together into two groups, Insecta and Vermes (worms).<ref>Guthrie, ''A History of Greek Philosophy'' Vol. 1 pp. 348</ref>
===পৰৱৰ্ত্তী গ্ৰীক দাৰ্শনিকসকল===
এৰিষ্ট'টলৰ কৰ্মসমূহৰ প্ৰভাৱ তেওঁৰ [[Peripatetic school]] ত শিষ্যৰ সংখ্যা বঢ়াৰ লগে লগে বৃদ্ধি পাবলৈ ধৰিলে৷ এৰিষ্ট'টলৰ প্ৰিয় শিষ্যসকলৰ ভিতৰত এৰিষ্ট'জেনাছ (Aristoxenus), Dicaearchus, Demetrius of Phalerum, Eudemos of Rhodes, Harpalus, Hephaestion, Meno, Mnason of Phocis, Nicomachus, আৰু Theophrastus আদিয়ে প্ৰধান৷ আলেকজেণ্ডাৰ Aristotle's influence over( Alexander the Great) is seenওপৰতো in the latterএৰিষ্ট'sটলৰ bringingবিস্তৰ withপ্ৰভাৱ himপৰা onদেখা hisযায়৷ expeditionঅৱশ্যে aদুৰ-দুৰণিলৈ hostভ্ৰমণ ofকৰিবলৈ zoologists,লোৱাৰ botanists,পৰা andআলেকজেণ্ডাৰে researchers.ক্ৰমান্বয়ে Heএৰিষ্ট'টলৰৰ hadভৌগোলিক alsoতথ্যসমূহৰ learnedত্ৰুতিসমূহ aধৰা greatপেলাবলৈ dealধৰিলে৷ aboutগতিকে Persian customs and traditions from his teacher. Although his respect for Aristotle was diminished as his travels made it clear that much of Aristotleএৰিষ্ট'sটলে geographyতেওঁৰ wasকৰ্মসমূহ clearlyৰাজহুৱা wrong,কৰাৰ whenসময়ত theআলেকজেণ্ডাৰে oldএনেদৰে philosopherঅসন্তোষ released his works to the public, Alexanderপ্ৰকাশ complainedকৰিছিল- "Thou hast not done well to publish thy acroamatic doctrines; for in what shall I surpass other men if those doctrines wherein I have been trained are to be all men's common property?"<ref>Plutarch, ''Life of Alexander''</ref>
===বিজেন্টিন (Byzantine) শিক্ষাবিদসকলৰ ওপৰত প্ৰভাৱ===
===Influence on Byzantine scholars===
এৰিষ্ট'টলৰ প্ৰয়ভাগ লিখনিৰে পাঠ লিখি ৰাখি গ্ৰীক লেখক (Greek Christian scribe) সকলে তেওঁৰ কৰ্মৰাজিৰ সংৰক্ষণত গুৰুত্বপূৰ্ণ ভূমিকা লৈছিল৷ এৰিষ্ট'টলৰ কৰ্মৰাজিৰ ওপৰত বিস্তৰভাৱে অধ্যয়ন কৰা আৰু মতামত আগবঢ়োৱা গ্ৰীক শিক্ষাবিদসকলৰ ভিতৰত জন ফিল'পনাছ ( John Philoponus), এলিয়াছ (Elias) আৰু ডেভিদ ( David), ষ্টিফেন অব আলেকজেণ্ড্ৰিয়া ( Stephen of Alexandria) আদি অন্যতম৷ <ref>Richard Sorabji, ed. ''Aristotle Transformed'' London, 1990, 20, 28, 35–36.</ref> জন ফিল'পনাছক প্ৰধানকৈ এৰিষ্ট'টলৰ বিশ্বব্ৰহ্মাণ্ডৰ অনন্তকাল (eternity of the world) কে ধৰি অন্যান্য ধাৰণাসমূহৰ সমালোক হিচাপে জনা যায়৷ <ref>Richard Sorabji, ed. ''Aristotle Transformed'' (London, 1990) 233–274.</ref>
Greek Christian scribes played a crucial role in the preservation of Aristotle by copying all the extant Greek language manuscripts of the corpus. The first Greek Christians to comment extensively on Aristotle were [[John Philoponus]], Elias, and David in the sixth century, and [[Stephen of Alexandria]] in the early seventh century.<ref>Richard Sorabji, ed. ''Aristotle Transformed'' London, 1990, 20, 28, 35–36.</ref> [[John Philoponus]] stands out for having attempted a fundamental critique of Aristotle's views on the eternity of the world, movement, and other elements of Aristotelian thought.<ref>Richard Sorabji, ed. ''Aristotle Transformed'' (London, 1990) 233–274.</ref> After a hiatus of several centuries, formal commentary by Eustratius and [[Michael of Ephesus]] reappears in the late eleventh and early twelfth centuries, apparently sponsored by [[Anna Comnena]].<ref>Richard Sorabji, ed. ''Aristotle Transformed'' (London, 1990) 20–21; 28–29, 393–406; 407–408.</ref>
===ইছলামিক ধৰ্মতাত্ত্বিক (theologian) সকলৰ ওপৰত প্ৰভাৱ===
===Influence on Islamic theologians===
Aristotle was one of the most revered Western thinkers in early [[Islamic theology]]. Most of the still extant works of Aristotle,<ref name="ReferenceA">''Encyclopedia of Islam'', ''Aristutalis''</ref> as well as a number of the original [[Greece|Greek]] commentaries, were translated into Arabic and studied by [[Muslim]] philosophers, scientists and scholars. [[Averroes]], [[Avicenna]] and [[Alpharabius]], who wrote on Aristotle in great depth, also influenced [[Thomas Aquinas]] and other Western Christian scholastic philosophers. [[Alkindus]] considered Aristotle as the outstanding and unique representative of philosophy<ref>''Rasa'il'' I, 103, 17, Abu Rida</ref> and Averroes spoke of Aristotle as the "exemplar" for all future philosophers.<ref>''Comm. Magnum'' in Aristotle'', ''De Anima'', III, 2, 43 Crawford</ref> Medieval Muslim scholars regularly described Aristotle as the "First Teacher".<ref>''al-mua'llim al-thani'', ''Aristutalis''</ref> The title "teacher" was first given to Aristotle by Muslim scholars, and was later used by Western philosophers (as in the famous poem of Dante) who were influenced by the tradition of [[Islamic philosophy]].<ref>{{cite book|last=Nasr|first=Seyyed Hossein|title=The Islamic Intellectual Tradition in Persia|year=1996|publisher=Curzon Press|isbn=0-7007-0314-4|pages=59–60}}</ref>
In accordance with the [[Greeks|Greek]] theorists, the Muslims considered Aristotle to be a dogmatic philosopher, the author of a closed system, and believed that Aristotle shared with [[Plato]] essential tenets of thought. Some went so far as to credit Aristotle himself with neo-Platonic metaphysical ideas.<ref name="ReferenceA"/>
===পশ্চিমীয়া খ্ৰীষ্টান ধৰ্মতাত্ত্বিক সকলৰ ওপৰত প্ৰভাৱ===
===Influence on Western Christian theologians===
With the loss of the study of ancient Greek in the early medieval Latin West, Aristotle was practically unknown there from c. AD 600 to c. 1100 except through the Latin translation of the ''Organon'' made by [[Boethius]]. In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, interest in Aristotle revived and Latin Christians had translations made, both from Arabic translations, such as those by [[Gerard of Cremona]],<ref>{{SEP|arabic-islamic-influence|Influence of Arabic and Islamic Philosophy on the Latin West}}</ref> and from the original Greek, such as those by [[James of Venice]] and [[William of Moerbeke]].
The German philosopher [[Friedrich Nietzsche]] has been said to have taken nearly all of his political philosophy from Aristotle.<ref>Durant, p. 86</ref> However implausible this is, it is certainly the case that Aristotle's rigid separation of action from production, and his justification of the subservience of slaves and others to the virtue – or ''arete'' – of a few justified the ideal of aristocracy. It is [[Martin Heidegger]], not Nietzsche, who elaborated a new interpretation of Aristotle, intended to warrant his deconstruction of scholastic and philosophical tradition. [[Ayn Rand]] accredited Aristotle as "the greatest philosopher in history" and cited him as a major influence on her thinking. More recently, [[Alasdair MacIntyre]] has attempted to reform what he calls the Aristotelian tradition in a way that is anti-elitist and capable of disputing the claims of both liberals and Nietzscheans.<ref>Kelvin Knight, ''Aristotelian Philosophy'', Polity Press, 2007, ''passim''.</ref>
==List of worksঅৱদান==
The works of Aristotle that have survived from antiquity through medieval manuscript transmission are collected in the Corpus Aristotelicum. These texts, as opposed to Aristotle's lost works, are technical philosophical treatises from within Aristotle's school. Reference to them is made according to the organization of [[Immanuel Bekker]]'s Royal Prussian Academy edition (''Aristotelis Opera edidit Academia Regia Borussica'', Berlin, 1831–1870), which in turn is based on ancient classifications of these works.
[[Aristotle Mountains]] on [[Oscar II Coast]] in [[Graham Land]], [[Antarctica]] are named after Aristotle who was the first to conjecture the existence of a landmass in the southern high-latitude region, calling it ''Antarctica''.<ref>[https://data.aad.gov.au/aadc/gaz/scar/display_name.cfm?gaz_id=137410 Aristotle Mountains.] [[SCAR]] [[Composite Antarctic Gazetteer]].</ref>

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