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Aristotle marked two modes of causation: proper (prior) causation and accidental (chance) causation. All causes, proper and incidental, can be spoken as potential or as actual, particular or generic. The same language refers to the effects of causes, so that generic effects assigned to generic causes, particular effects to particular causes, operating causes to actual effects. Essentially, causality does not suggest a temporal relation between the cause and the effect.
 
====আলোকবিজ্ঞান (Optics)====
Aristotle held more accurate theories on some optical concepts than other philosophers of his day. The earliest known written evidence of a [[camera obscura]] can be found in Aristotle's documentation of such a device in 350 BC in ''Problemata''. Aristotle's apparatus contained a dark chamber that had a single small hole, or [[aperture]], to allow for sunlight to enter. Aristotle used the device to make observations of the sun and noted that no matter what shape the hole was, the sun would still be correctly displayed as a round object. In modern cameras, this is analogous to the [[Diaphragm (optics)|diaphragm]]. Aristotle also made the observation that when the distance between the aperture and the surface with the image increased, the image was magnified.<ref>{{cite web|author=Michael Lahanas |url=http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Optics.htm |title=Optics and ancient Greeks |publisher=Mlahanas.de |date= |accessdate=26 April 2009| archiveurl= https://web.archive.org/web/20090411051535/http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Optics.htm| archivedate= 11 April 2009 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref>
 
===Metaphysics===
[[File:Uni Freiburg - Philosophen 4.jpg|thumb|Statue of Aristotle (1915) by Cipri Adolf Bermann at the [[University of Freiburg]] [[Freiburg im Breisgau|im Breisgau]]]]
{{Main|Metaphysics (Aristotle)}}
Aristotle defines metaphysics as "the knowledge of [[hylomorphism|immaterial]] being," or of "being in the highest degree of [[abstraction]]." He refers to metaphysics as "first philosophy", as well as "the theologic science."
 
====Substance, potentiality and actuality====
{{See also|Potentiality and actuality (Aristotle)}}
Aristotle examines the concepts of [[Substance theory|substance]] and [[essence]] (''ousia'') in his ''Metaphysics'' (Book VII), and he concludes that a particular substance is a combination of both matter and form. In book VIII, he distinguishes the matter of the substance as the [[Material substratum|substratum]], or the stuff of which it is composed. For example, the matter of a house is the bricks, stones, timbers etc., or whatever constitutes the ''potential'' house, while the form of the substance is the ''actual'' house, namely 'covering for bodies and chattels' or any other [[Genus-differentia definition|differentia]] (see also [[predicables]]) that let us define something as a house. The formula that gives the components is the account of the matter, and the formula that gives the differentia is the account of the form.<ref>Aristotle, ''Metaphysics'' VIII 1043a 10–30</ref>
 
====Universals and particulars====
{{Main|Aristotle's theory of universals}}
 
Aristotle's predecessor, Plato, argued that all things have a universal form, which could be either a property, or a relation to other things. When we look at an apple, for example, we see an apple, and we can also analyze a form of an apple. In this distinction, there is a particular apple and a universal form of an apple. Moreover, we can place an apple next to a book, so that we can speak of both the book and apple as being next to each other.
 
 
[[File:Octopus3.jpg|thumb|Octopus swimming]]
[[File:Torpedo fuscomaculata2.jpg|thumb|''Torpedo fuscomaculata'']]
[[File:Triakis semifasciata.jpg|thumb|Leopard shark]]
 
 
====Rhetoric and poetics====
{{Main|Rhetoric (Aristotle)|Poetics (Aristotle)}}
Aristotle considered [[epic poetry]], tragedy, comedy, [[Dithyramb|dithyrambic poetry]] and music to be [[Mimesis|imitative]], each varying in imitation by medium, object, and manner.<ref>Aristotle, ''Poetics'' I 1447a</ref> For example, music imitates with the media of rhythm and harmony, whereas dance imitates with rhythm alone, and poetry with language. The forms also differ in their object of imitation. Comedy, for instance, is a dramatic imitation of men worse than average; whereas tragedy imitates men slightly better than average. Lastly, the forms differ in their manner of imitation – through narrative or character, through change or no change, and through drama or no drama.<ref>Aristotle, ''Poetics'' III</ref> Aristotle believed that imitation is natural to mankind and constitutes one of mankind's advantages over animals.<ref>Aristotle, ''Poetics'' IV</ref>
 
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