"এৰিষ্ট'টল"ৰ বিভিন্ন সংশোধনসমূহৰ মাজৰ পাৰ্থক্য

414 বাইট যোগ দিয়া হ’ল ,  7 বছৰৰ পূৰ্বে
শিৰোনামাৰ অনুবাদ
(শিৰোনামাৰ অনুবাদ)
Aristotle defined [[Motion (physics)|motion]] as the actuality of a potentiality ''as such''.<ref>''Physics'' 201a10–11, 201a27–29, 201b4–5</ref> Aquinas suggested that the passage be understood literally; that motion can indeed be understood as the active fulfillment of a potential, as a transition toward a potentially possible state. Because [[Aristotle#Substance, potentiality and actuality|actuality and potentiality]] are normally opposites in Aristotle, other commentators either suggest that the wording which has come down to us is erroneous, or that the addition of the "as such" to the definition is critical to understanding it.<ref>{{Citation|last=Sachs|first=Joe|title=Aristotle: Motion and its Place in Nature|year=2005|url=http://www.iep.utm.edu/aris-mot/|journal=Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy}}</ref>
 
====কাৰ্যকাৰণবাদ (Causality), the fourচাৰিটা causesকাৰক====<!-- This section is linked from [[Retrocausality]]. See [[WP:MOS#Section management]] -->
Aristotle suggested that the reason for anything coming about can be attributed to four different types of simultaneously active causal factors:
*[[Material cause]] describes the material out of which something is composed. Thus the material cause of a table is wood, and the material cause of a car is rubber and steel. It is not about action. It does not mean one domino knocks over another domino.
Aristotle held more accurate theories on some optical concepts than other philosophers of his day. The earliest known written evidence of a [[camera obscura]] can be found in Aristotle's documentation of such a device in 350 BC in ''Problemata''. Aristotle's apparatus contained a dark chamber that had a single small hole, or [[aperture]], to allow for sunlight to enter. Aristotle used the device to make observations of the sun and noted that no matter what shape the hole was, the sun would still be correctly displayed as a round object. In modern cameras, this is analogous to the [[Diaphragm (optics)|diaphragm]]. Aristotle also made the observation that when the distance between the aperture and the surface with the image increased, the image was magnified.<ref>{{cite web|author=Michael Lahanas |url=http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Optics.htm |title=Optics and ancient Greeks |publisher=Mlahanas.de |date= |accessdate=26 April 2009| archiveurl= https://web.archive.org/web/20090411051535/http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Optics.htm| archivedate= 11 April 2009 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref>
 
====সুযোগ (Chance) আৰু andস্বয়ংক্ৰিয়তা (spontaneity)====
According to Aristotle, spontaneity and chance are causes of some things, distinguishable from other types of cause. Chance as an incidental cause lies in the realm of [[sumbebekos|accidental things]]. It is "from what is spontaneous" (but note that what is spontaneous does not come from chance). For a better understanding of Aristotle's conception of "chance" it might be better to think of "coincidence": Something takes place by chance if a person sets out with the intent of having one thing take place, but with the result of another thing (not intended) taking place.
 
===অধিবিদ্যা (Metaphysics)===
[[File:Uni Freiburg - Philosophen 4.jpg|thumb|Statue of Aristotle (1915) by Cipri Adolf Bermann at the [[University of Freiburg]] [[Freiburg im Breisgau|im Breisgau]]]]
Aristotle defines metaphysics as "the knowledge of [[hylomorphism|immaterial]] being," or of "being in the highest degree of [[abstraction]]." He refers to metaphysics as "first philosophy", as well as "the theologic science."
 
====নিৰ্যাস (Substance), বিভৱ (potentiality) আৰু andবাস্তৱিকতা (actuality)====
Aristotle examines the concepts of [[Substance theory|substance]] and [[essence]] (''ousia'') in his ''Metaphysics'' (Book VII), and he concludes that a particular substance is a combination of both matter and form. In book VIII, he distinguishes the matter of the substance as the [[Material substratum|substratum]], or the stuff of which it is composed. For example, the matter of a house is the bricks, stones, timbers etc., or whatever constitutes the ''potential'' house, while the form of the substance is the ''actual'' house, namely 'covering for bodies and chattels' or any other [[Genus-differentia definition|differentia]] (see also [[predicables]]) that let us define something as a house. The formula that gives the components is the account of the matter, and the formula that gives the differentia is the account of the form.<ref>Aristotle, ''Metaphysics'' VIII 1043a 10–30</ref>
 
====সাৰ্বজনীনতা (Universal) আৰু বিশেষত্বতা (particulars)====
====Universals and particulars====
Aristotle's predecessor, Plato, argued that all things have a universal form, which could be either a property, or a relation to other things. When we look at an apple, for example, we see an apple, and we can also analyze a form of an apple. In this distinction, there is a particular apple and a universal form of an apple. Moreover, we can place an apple next to a book, so that we can speak of both the book and apple as being next to each other.
 
Aristotle's classification of living things contains some elements which still existed in the 19th century. What the modern zoologist would call vertebrates and invertebrates, Aristotle called 'animals with blood' and 'animals without blood' (he did not know that complex invertebrates do make use of [[hemoglobin]], but of a different kind from vertebrates). Animals with blood were divided into live-bearing (humans and mammals), and egg-bearing (birds and fish). Invertebrates ('animals without blood') are insects, crustacea (divided into non-shelled – cephalopods – and shelled) and testacea (molluscs). In some respects, this incomplete classification is better than that of [[Linnaeus]], who crowded the invertebrata together into two groups, Insecta and Vermes (worms).<ref>Guthrie, ''A History of Greek Philosophy'' Vol. 1 pp. 348</ref>
 
====ভেষজবিদ্যা====
====Influence on Hellenistic medicine====
After Theophrastus, the Lyceum failed to produce any original work. Though interest in Aristotle's ideas survived, they were generally taken unquestioningly.<ref>Annas, ''Classical Greek Philosophy'' pp 252</ref> It is not until the age of [[Alexandria]] under the [[Ptolemaic dynasty|Ptolemies]] that advances in biology can be again found.
 
The first medical teacher at Alexandria, [[Herophilos|Herophilus of Chalcedon]], corrected Aristotle, placing intelligence in the brain, and connected the nervous system to motion and sensation. Herophilus also distinguished between [[vein]]s and [[artery|arteries]], noting that the latter [[pulse]] while the former do not.<ref>Mason, ''A History of the Sciences'' pp 56</ref> Though a few ancient [[atomism|atomists]] such as [[Lucretius]] challenged the [[teleology|teleological]] viewpoint of Aristotelian ideas about life, teleology (and after the rise of Christianity, [[natural theology]]) would remain central to biological thought essentially until the 18th and 19th centuries. [[Ernst Mayr]] claimed that there was "nothing of any real consequence in biology after Lucretius and Galen until the Renaissance."<ref>Mayr, ''The Growth of Biological Thought'', pp 90–94; quotation from p 91</ref> Aristotle's ideas of natural history and medicine survived, but they were generally taken unquestioningly.<ref>Annas, ''Classical Greek Philosophy'', p 252</ref>
 
===মনোবিজ্ঞান===
===Psychology===
Aristotle's [[psychology]], given in his treatise [[On the Soul]] (''peri psyche'', often known by its [[Latin]] title ''De Anima''), posits three kinds of [[soul]] ("psyches"): the vegetative soul, the sensitive soul, and the rational soul. Humans have a rational soul. This kind of soul is capable of the same powers as the other kinds: Like the vegetative soul it can grow and nourish itself; like the sensitive soul it can experience sensations and move locally. The unique part of the human, rational soul is its ability to receive forms of other things and compare them.
 
For Aristotle, the soul (''psyche'') was a simpler concept than it is for us today. By soul he simply meant the [[Hylomorphism#Body-soul hylomorphism|form]] of a living being. Since all beings are composites of form and matter, the form of living beings is that which endows them with what is specific to living beings, e.g. the ability to initiate movement (or in the case of plants, growth and chemical transformations, which Aristotle considers types of movement).<ref>Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, article [http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/aristotle-psychology/ "Psychology"].</ref>
 
===প্ৰয়োগিক দৰ্শন===
===Practical philosophy===
====নীতি শাস্ত্ৰ (Ethics)====
Aristotle considered ethics to be a practical rather than theoretical study, i.e., one aimed at becoming good and doing good rather than knowing for its own sake. He wrote several treatises on ethics, including most notably, the ''[[Nicomachean Ethics]]''.
 
Aristotle taught that virtue has to do with the proper function (''ergon'') of a thing. An eye is only a good eye in so much as it can see, because the proper function of an eye is sight. Aristotle reasoned that humans must have a function specific to humans, and that this function must be an activity of the ''[[De Anima|psuchē]]'' (normally translated as ''soul'') in accordance with reason (''[[logos]]''). Aristotle identified such an optimum activity of the soul as the aim of all human deliberate action, ''[[eudaimonia]]'', generally translated as "happiness" or sometimes "well being". To have the potential of ever being happy in this way necessarily requires a good character (''ēthikē'' ''[[aretē]]''), often translated as moral (or ethical) virtue (or excellence).<ref>[[Nicomachean Ethics]] Book I. See for example chapter 7 [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0054%3Abekker%20page%3D1098a 1098a].</ref>
 
====Politicsৰাজনীতি====
{{quote|''Like Aristotle, conservatives generally accept the world as it is; they distrust the politics of abstract reason – that is, reason divorced from experience.''<br>'''''Benjamin Wiker'''''<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.wnd.com/2010/08/191121 |title=Aristotle: Father of political conservatism |publisher=Wnd.com |date=14 August 2010 |accessdate=15 October 2012}}</ref>}}
 
In addition to his works on ethics, which address the individual, Aristotle addressed the city in his work titled ''[[Politics (Aristotle)|Politics]]''. Aristotle considered the city to be a natural community. Moreover, he considered the city to be prior in importance to the family which in turn is prior to the individual, "for the whole must of necessity be prior to the part".<ref>Politics 1253a19–24</ref> He also famously stated that "man is by nature a political animal". Aristotle conceived of politics as being like an [[organism]] rather than like a machine, and as a collection of parts none of which can exist without the others. Aristotle's conception of the city is organic, and he is considered one of the first to conceive of the city in this manner.<ref>{{cite book | last =Ebenstein | first =Alan | coauthors =William Ebenstein | title =Introduction to Political Thinkers | publisher =Wadsworth Group | year =2002 | page =59}}</ref>
 
====কাব্যসাহিত্য====
====Rhetoric and poetics====
Aristotle considered [[epic poetry]], tragedy, comedy, [[Dithyramb|dithyrambic poetry]] and music to be [[Mimesis|imitative]], each varying in imitation by medium, object, and manner.<ref>Aristotle, ''Poetics'' I 1447a</ref> For example, music imitates with the media of rhythm and harmony, whereas dance imitates with rhythm alone, and poetry with language. The forms also differ in their object of imitation. Comedy, for instance, is a dramatic imitation of men worse than average; whereas tragedy imitates men slightly better than average. Lastly, the forms differ in their manner of imitation – through narrative or character, through change or no change, and through drama or no drama.<ref>Aristotle, ''Poetics'' III</ref> Aristotle believed that imitation is natural to mankind and constitutes one of mankind's advantages over animals.<ref>Aristotle, ''Poetics'' IV</ref>
 
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