After Theophrastus, the Lyceum failed to produce any original work. Though interest in Aristotle's ideas survived, they were generally taken unquestioningly.<ref>Annas, ''Classical Greek Philosophy'' pp 252</ref> It is not until the age of [[Alexandria]] under the [[Ptolemaic dynasty|Ptolemies]] that advances in biology can be again found.
The first medical teacher at Alexandria, [[Herophilos|Herophilus of Chalcedon]], corrected Aristotle, placing intelligence in the brain, and connected the nervous system to motion and sensation. Herophilus also distinguished between [[vein]]s and [[artery|arteries]], noting that the latter [[pulse]] while the former do not.<ref>Mason, ''A History of the Sciences'' pp 56</ref> Though a few ancient [[atomism|atomists]] such as [[Lucretius]] challenged the [[teleology|teleological]] viewpoint of Aristotelian ideas about life, teleology (and after the rise of Christianity, [[natural theology]]) would remain central to biological thought essentially until the 18th and 19th centuries. [[Ernst Mayr]] claimed that there was "nothing of any real consequence in biology after Lucretius and Galen until the Renaissance."<ref>Mayr, ''The Growth of Biological Thought'', pp 90–94; quotation from p 91</ref> Aristotle's ideas of natural history and medicine survived, but they were generally taken unquestioningly.<ref>Annas, ''Classical Greek Philosophy'', p 252</ref>