"এৰিষ্ট'টল"ৰ বিভিন্ন সংশোধনসমূহৰ মাজৰ পাৰ্থক্য

197 বাইট যোগ দিয়া হ’ল ,  7 বছৰৰ পূৰ্বে
===প্ৰয়োগিক দৰ্শন===
====নীতি শাস্ত্ৰ (Ethics)====
এৰিষ্ট'টলে নীতিশাস্ত্ৰক তাত্বিকৰ পৰিৱৰ্ত্তে প্ৰায়োগিক শাস্ত্ৰ বুলিহে ধাৰণা কৰিছিল৷ ইয়াৰ অৰ্থ হ'ল কেৱল এক শাস্ত্ৰ ৰূপে অধ্যন কৰাৰ সলনি ব্যক্তিৰ নিজৰ উৎকৰ্ষ সাধনৰ চেষ্টা হিচাপে নীতিশাস্ত্ৰক গ্ৰহণ কৰা৷ তেওঁ নীতিশাস্ত্ৰৰ ওপৰতো একাধিক গ্ৰন্থ ৰচনা কৰিছিল৷ ইয়াৰ ভিতৰত উল্লেখযোগ্য হ'ল- ''Nicomachean Ethics ''নামৰ গ্ৰন্থখন৷ <ref>[[Nicomachean Ethics]] Book I. See for example chapter 7 [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0054%3Abekker%20page%3D1098a 1098a].</ref>
Aristotle considered ethics to be a practical rather than theoretical study, i.e., one aimed at becoming good and doing good rather than knowing for its own sake. He wrote several treatises on ethics, including most notably, the ''[[Nicomachean Ethics]]''.
 
Aristotle taught that virtue has to do with the proper function (''ergon'') of a thing. An eye is only a good eye in so much as it can see, because the proper function of an eye is sight. Aristotle reasoned that humans must have a function specific to humans, and that this function must be an activity of the ''[[De Anima|psuchē]]'' (normally translated as ''soul'') in accordance with reason (''[[logos]]''). Aristotle identified such an optimum activity of the soul as the aim of all human deliberate action, ''[[eudaimonia]]'', generally translated as "happiness" or sometimes "well being". To have the potential of ever being happy in this way necessarily requires a good character (''ēthikē'' ''[[aretē]]''), often translated as moral (or ethical) virtue (or excellence).<ref>[[Nicomachean Ethics]] Book I. See for example chapter 7 [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0054%3Abekker%20page%3D1098a 1098a].</ref>
 
====ৰাজনীতি====
{{quote|''Like Aristotle, conservatives generally accept the world as it is; they distrust the politics of abstract reason – that is, reason divorced from experience.''<br>'''''Benjamin Wiker'''''<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.wnd.com/2010/08/191121 |title=Aristotle: Father of political conservatism |publisher=Wnd.com |date=14 August 2010 |accessdate=15 October 2012}}</ref>}}
 
ব্যক্তিবিশেষক সম্বোধন কৰি ৰচনা কৰা নীতিশাস্ত্ৰৰ গ্ৰন্থসমূহৰ উপৰিও এৰিষ্ট'টলে সমগ্ৰ চহৰখনকে সম্বোধি তেওঁৰ ৰাজনীতি সম্পৰ্কীয় গ্ৰন্থ' ' ''Politics' ''ৰচনা কৰি উলিয়াইছিল৷<ref>Politics 1253a19–24</ref> তাৰোপৰি ৰাজনীতি সম্পৰ্কত তেওঁৰ এক বিখ্যাত উক্তি হৈছে- "man is by nature a political animal"৷ এৰিষ্ট'টলে ৰাজনীতিক এক যান্ত্ৰিক ধাৰণাৰ পৰিৱৰ্ত্তে এক জীৱৰ দৰে কাৰ্য্যকৰি বুলি ধাৰণা কৰিছিল৷ তেওঁৰ মতে ই বহুতো অংশৰে গঠিত আৰু ইয়াৰে যিকোনো এটাৰ অবিহনে সমগ্ৰ ব্যৱস্থাই অচল হৈ পৰিব বুলি ধাৰণা কৰিছিল৷ <ref>{{cite book | last =Ebenstein | first =Alan | coauthors =William Ebenstein | title =Introduction to Political Thinkers | publisher =Wadsworth Group | year =2002 | page =59}}</ref>
In addition to his works on ethics, which address the individual, Aristotle addressed the city in his work titled ''[[Politics (Aristotle)|Politics]]''. Aristotle considered the city to be a natural community. Moreover, he considered the city to be prior in importance to the family which in turn is prior to the individual, "for the whole must of necessity be prior to the part".<ref>Politics 1253a19–24</ref> He also famously stated that "man is by nature a political animal". Aristotle conceived of politics as being like an [[organism]] rather than like a machine, and as a collection of parts none of which can exist without the others. Aristotle's conception of the city is organic, and he is considered one of the first to conceive of the city in this manner.<ref>{{cite book | last =Ebenstein | first =Alan | coauthors =William Ebenstein | title =Introduction to Political Thinkers | publisher =Wadsworth Group | year =2002 | page =59}}</ref>
 
====কাব্যসাহিত্য====
4,194

টা সম্পাদনা