গ্ৰহৰ [[খনিজ]] সম্পদ আৰু জৈৱ সম্পদ উভয়ই মানৱজাতিৰ জীৱনধাৰণৰ বাবে অপৰিহাৰ্য।
Geology is the science and study of the solid and liquid matter that constitutes the [[Earth]]. The field of geology encompasses the study of the composition, [[structural geology|structure]], [[Physical property|physical properties]], dynamics, and [[History of the Earth|history]] of [[Earth materials]], and the processes by which they are formed, moved, and changed. The field is a major [[academic discipline]], and is also important for [[mining|mineral]] and [[petroleum geology|hydrocarbon]] extraction, knowledge about and mitigation of [[natural hazard]]s, some [[Geotechnical engineering]] fields, and understanding [[Paleoclimatology|past climates]] and environments.
[[File:Tectonic plate boundaries.png|thumb|left|upright=1.3|Three types of geological [[plate tectonic]] boundaries.]]
The geology of an area evolves through time as rock units are deposited and inserted and deformational processes change their shapes and locations.
Rock units are first emplaced either by [[deposition (geology)|deposition]] onto the surface or intrude into the [[Country rock (geology)|overlying rock]]. Deposition can occur when [[sediment]]s settle onto the surface of the Earth and later [[lithification|lithify]] into [[sedimentary rock]], or when as [[volcanic rock|volcanic material]] such as [[volcanic ash]] or [[lava]] flows, blanket the surface. Igneous [[intrusion]]s such as [[batholith]]s, [[laccolith]]s, [[dike (geology)|dikes]], and [[sill (geology)|sills]], push upwards into the overlying rock, and crystallize as they intrude.
After the initial sequence of rocks has been deposited, the rock units can be [[deformation (mechanics)|deformed]] and/or [[metamorphism|metamorphosed]]. Deformation typically occurs as a result of horizontal shortening, [[extension (geology)|horizontal extension]], or side-to-side ([[strike-slip]]) motion. These structural regimes broadly relate to [[convergent boundary|convergent boundaries]], [[divergent boundary|divergent boundaries]], and [[transform boundary|transform boundaries]], respectively, between [[plate tectonics|tectonic plates]].