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{{style-guideline|WP:MOS|WP:STYLE|MOS:}}
{{style}}
The '''Manual of Style''' (often abbreviated '''MoS''' or '''MOS''') is a [[style guide]] for all Wikipedia articles. This is the main page; subpages with greater detail are linked in the menu to the right, and are listed at [[Helpসহায়: List of Manuals of Style]].
 
The MoS presents Wikipedia's house style, to help editors produce articles with consistent, clear, and precise language, layout, and formatting. The goal is to make the encyclopedia easier and more intuitive to use. Consistency in style and formatting promotes clarity and cohesion; this is especially important within an article.
 
Writing should be clear and concise. [[Plain English]] works best: avoid [[jargon]], and vague or unnecessarily complex wording.
 
On points where more than one style is acceptable, editors should not change an article from one of those styles to another without a substantial reason. Revert-warring over optional styles is unacceptable.<ref>These matters have been addressed in rulings of the [[WPৱিকিপিডিয়া:Arbitration Committee|Arbitration Committee]]: see [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Requests for arbitration/Jguk#Principles]] and [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Requests for arbitration/Sortan#Principles]].</ref> If discussion cannot determine which style to use in an article, defer to the style used by the first major contributor.
 
Any issues relating to style guidance can be discussed on the [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া talkবাৰ্তা:Manual of Style|MoS talk page]]. Some of the past discussions which led to decisions on aspects of style guidance are recorded at the [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Manual of Style/Register|MoS register]].
 
== Article titles, headings, and sections ==
 
=== Article titles ===
{{dablink|Main page: [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Article titles]]. For results of past discussions, see the [[WPৱিকিপিডিয়া:Manual of Style/Register#Article titles|Register]].}}
The title of a Wikipedia article should be chosen based on Wikipedia's [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Article titles|Article titles]] policy. The principal criteria for an ideal title are that it should be recognizable (as a name or description of the article's topic), natural, precise (but only as precise as necessary), concise, and consistent with the titles of similar articles. Sometimes these criteria conflict and need to be balanced against one other.
 
For guidance as to the format of titles, see the [[WPৱিকিপিডিয়া:Article titles#Article title format|''Article title format'']] section of that policy. Note in particular that:
* The initial letter of a title is capitalized (except in rare cases, such as {{xt|eBay}}). Otherwise, capital letters are used only where they would be used in a normal sentence ({{xt|Funding of UNESCO projects}}, not {{!xt|Funding of UNESCO Projects}}).
* To italicize a title, add the template {{tl|italic title}} near the top of the article. Use of italics should conform to [[WPৱিকিপিডিয়া:ITALICS]].
* Do not use {{!xt|a}}, {{!xt|an}}, or {{!xt|the}} as the first word ({{xt|Economy of the Second Empire}}, not {{!xt|The economy of the Second Empire}}), unless by convention it is an inseparable part of a name ({{xt|The Hague}}).
* Titles should normally be [[noun]]s or [[noun phrase]]s: {{xt|Early life}}, not {{!xt|In early life}}.
* The final visible character of a title should not be a punctuation mark, unless the punctuation is part of a name ({{xt|[[Saint-Louis-du-Ha! Ha!]]}}), an abbreviation is used ({{xt|[[Inverness City F.C.]]}}), or a closing round bracket or quotation mark is required ({{xt|[[John Palmer (schooner)]]}}).
 
The provisions of the Manual of Style apply to all parts of an article, including the title. See especially [[#Punctuation|punctuation]], below. (The policy page [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Article titles]] does not determine punctuation.)
 
=== Lead section ===
{{main|Wikipedia:Manual of Style (lead section)}}
The text of an article begins with what is called the ''lead section'' or ''lede''—the part of the article that appears before the table of contents and first section heading. It serves to introduce the topic and provide a summary of its most important aspects.
 
=== Section headings ===
{{see also|Help:Section}}
{{shortcut|MOS:HEAD|WP:MOSHEAD|WP:HEADINGS}}
The remainder of the article after the lead is divided into sections, each of which has a section heading. Sections can be nested. Provided there are more than three section headings in the article, a numbered [[WPৱিকিপিডিয়া:TOC|table of contents]] is generated automatically, and displayed just above the first heading. This provides an overview of the article and allows readers to navigate through the text more easily.
 
Headings are produced by typing multiple equal signs. A primary section heading is written <code><nowiki>==Title==</nowiki></code>, a subsection below it is written <code><nowiki>===Title===</nowiki></code>, and so on (a maximum of five levels is possible). The heading must be typed on a separate line. Spaces between the equal signs and the heading text are optional; they will not affect the way the heading is displayed. Include one blank line above the heading, and optionally one blank line below it, for readability in the edit window. (Only two or more consecutive blank lines will add more white space in the public appearance of the page.)
The provisions in [[#Article titles|Article titles]] (above) generally apply to section headings as well. The following points apply specifically to section headings:
* Headings should not refer redundantly to the subject of the article, or to higher-level headings, unless doing so is shorter or clearer. ({{xt|Early life}} is preferable to {{!xt|His early life}} when ''his'' refers to the subject of the article; headings can be assumed to be about the subject unless otherwise indicated.)
* Unlike article titles, section titles are italicized with double apostrophes, just like other text. [[WPৱিকিপিডিয়া:ITALICS]] still applies.
* Headings should not normally contain links, especially where only part of a heading is linked.
* Section and subsection headings should preferably be unique within a page; otherwise section links may lead to the wrong place, and automatic edit summaries can be ambiguous.
 
Before changing a section heading, consider whether you might be breaking existing links to that section. If there are many links to the old section title, create an [[Helpসহায়:Anchor|anchor]] with that title to ensure that the links still work. Similarly, when linking to a section of an article, leave a invisible [[WPৱিকিপিডিয়া:COMMENT|comment]] at that section, specifying the names of the linking articles so that if the title is altered, others can fix the links. For example:
{{xt2|<code><nowiki> ==Evolutionary implications<!--This section is linked from [[Richard Dawkins]] and [[Daniel Dennett]]-->== </nowiki></code>}}
 
=== Section organization ===
{{main|Wikipedia:Manual of Style (layout)}}
If the topic of a section is also covered in more detail in a dedicated article, show this by inserting {{tlx|main|Article name}} directly under the section heading. See also [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Summary style]].
 
As explained in more detail in the ''[[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Manual of Style (layout)#Standard appendices and footers|Standard appendices and footers]]'' section of the MoS layout page, optional appendix sections containing the following lists may appear after the body of the article in the following order: (a) books or other works created by the subject of the article; (b) internal links to related English Wikipedia articles; (c) notes and references; (d) recommended relevant books, articles, or other publications that have not been used as sources; and (e) recommended relevant websites that have not been used as sources and do not appear in the earlier appendices.
 
Certain article elements usually come outside the section structure; these include [[WPৱিকিপিডিয়া:Hatnote|disambiguation hatnotes]] (normally placed at the very top of the article), [[WPৱিকিপিডিয়া:Infobox|infoboxes]] (usually placed before the lead section), [[WPৱিকিপিডিয়া:Navbox|navigational boxes]] (placed at the bottom of the page, or sometimes at the top in the form of sidebars), [[WPৱিকিপিডিয়া:Category|categories]] and [[WPৱিকিপিডিয়া:Interlanguage link|interlanguage links]].
 
== National varieties of English ==
{{shortcut|MOS:ENGVAR|WP:ENGVAR}}
{{see also|Wikipedia:Manual of Style (spelling)|#Plurals}}
Subject to the guidelines below, the English Wikipedia does not prefer any major national variety of the language. No variant is inherently more correct than another. Cultural clashes over vocabulary, spelling, and grammar can be avoided by using the following four guidelines. (The accepted style of punctuation is covered in the [[#Punctuation|punctuation section]], below.) New users can be advised of this guideline using {{tl|uw-lang}}.
 
=== Consistency within articles ===
{{Shortcut|MOS:TIES|WP:TIES}}
An article on a topic that has strong ties to a particular English-speaking nation should use the English of that nation. For example:
* [[Great Fire of London]] ([[British English]]) or Tolkien's ''[[The Lord of the Rings]]'' (which uses another variant of British English)
* [[American Civil War]] ([[American English]])
* [[Institutions of the European Union]] (British or [[Hiberno-English|Irish English]])
In a biographical or critical article, it may be best to use the subject's own variety of English (where there is a definite preference), especially if the author's writings are quoted in the article. For example, avoid American English commentary on quotations from Tolkien's very British prose.
 
This guideline should not be used to claim national ownership of certain articles; see [[WPৱিকিপিডিয়া:OWN]].
 
=== Retaining the existing variety ===
{{shortcut|MOS:RETAIN|WP:RETAIN}}
When a variety of English has become established in an article, it should be maintained unless [[#Strong national ties to a topic|Strong national ties to a topic]] (see above) requires otherwise. When no variety is yet established and discussion cannot resolve the issue, adopt the variety used by the first major contributor; or equivalently, the first contributor to a non-[[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Stub|stub]] article to edit in a way that determines the variety. That editor can document the decision by placing the appropriate [[:category:Varieties of English templates|''Varieties of English'' template]] on the article's talk page.
 
=== Opportunities for commonality ===
{{shortcut|MOS:COMMONALITY|WP:COMMONALITY|WP:VNE}}
Wikipedia tries to find words that are common to all varieties of English.
* Universally used terms are often preferable to less widely distributed terms, especially in article titles. For example, {{xt|[[fixed-wing aircraft]]}} is preferred to the national varieties {{xt|aeroplane}} ([[British English]]) and {{xt|airplane}} ([[American English]]).
* If one variant spelling appears in an article title, [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Redirect|redirect]] pages are made to accommodate the other variants, as with [[Artefact]] and [[Artifact]], so that all variants can be used in searches and in linking.
* Terms that are uncommon in some varieties of English, or that have divergent meanings, may be glossed to prevent confusion. Insisting on a single term or a single usage as the only correct option does not serve the purposes of an international encyclopedia.
* Use a commonly understood word or phrase in preference to one that has a different meaning because of national differences. For example, rather than {{!xt|alternate}}, use {{xt|alternative}} or {{xt|alternating}} depending on which sense is meant.
:{|style="background:transparent"
|-valign=top
|''Incorrect'': ||{{!xt|Contrary to popular belief, aardvarks are NOT the same as anteaters.}}
|-valign=top
|''Correct'': ||{{xt|Contrary to popular belief, aardvarks are ''not'' the same as anteaters.}}
|}
 
=== Capitalization of "The" ===
{{See also|Wikipedia:Manual of Style (music)#Names (definite article)}}
Generally do not capitalize the definite article in the middle of a sentence. However, some idiomatic exceptions, including most titles of artistic works, should be quoted exactly according to common usage.
 
:{|style="background:transparent"
|-
| ''Incorrect'' || ''(generic)'': || {{!xt|There was an article about The United Kingdom in yesterday's newspaper.}}
|-
| ''Correct'' || ''(generic)'': || {{xt|There was an article about the United Kingdom in yesterday's newspaper.}}
|-
| ''Incorrect'' || ''(title)'': || {{!xt|J.R.R. Tolkien wrote ''the Lord of the Rings''.}}
|-
| ''Correct'' || ''(title)'': || {{xt|J.R.R. Tolkien wrote ''The Lord of the Rings''.}}
|-
| ''Correct'' || ''(title)'': || {{xt|Homer wrote the ''Odyssey''.}}
|-
| ''Incorrect''|| ''(exception)'': || {{!xt|There are two seaside resorts in the Hague.}}
|-
| ''Correct'' || ''(exception)'': || {{xt|There are two seaside resorts in The Hague.}}
|}
 
* '''In generic use''', apply lower case for words such as ''president'', ''king'', and ''emperor'' ({{xt|De Gaulle was a French president}}; {{xt|Louis XVI was a French king}}; {{xt|Three prime ministers attended the conference}}).
* '''In parts of a person's title''', begin such words with a capital letter ({{xt|President Obama}}, not {{!xt|president Obama}}). Standard or commonly used names of an office are treated as proper nouns ({{xt|The British Prime Minister is David Cameron}}; {{xt|Hirohito was Emperor of Japan}}; {{xt|Louis XVI was King of France}}). Royal styles are capitalized ({{xt|Her Majesty}}; {{xt|His Highness}}); exceptions may apply for particular offices.
* For the use of titles and honorifics in biographical articles, see [[WPৱিকিপিডিয়া:Manual of Style (biographies)#Honorific prefixes|Honorific prefixes]].
 
=== Religions, deities, philosophies, doctrines, and their adherents ===
{{main|Wikipedia:Manual of Style (capital letters)#Religions, deities, philosophies, doctrines and their adherents}}
* '''Religions, sects, and churches''' and their followers (in noun or adjective form) start with a capital letter. Generally, "the" is not capitalized before such names ({{xt|the Shī‘a}}, not {{!xt|The Shī‘a}}). (However, see the [[WPৱিকিপিডিয়া:Manual of Style (Latter Day Saints)|style guide]] and [[WPৱিকিপিডিয়া:Naming conventions (Latter Day Saints)|naming convention]] for the Latter Day Saint movement.)
* '''[[Religious text]]s''' (scriptures) are capitalized, but often not italicized ({{xt|the Bhagavad Gita}}, {{xt|the Qur’an}}, {{xt|the Talmud}}, {{xt|the Granth Sahib}}, {{xt|the Bible}}). When "the" is used, it is not capitalized. Some derived adjectives are capitalized by convention, some are not ({{xt|biblical}}, but {{xt|Koranic}}); if unsure, check a dictionary appropriate to the topic, and be consistent within an article.
* '''[[Honorific]]s for deities''', including proper nouns and titles, start with a capital letter ({{xt|God}}, {{xt|Allah}}, {{xt|the Lord}}, {{xt|the Supreme Being}}, {{xt|the Great Spirit}}, {{xt|the Horned One}}, {{xt|Bhagavan}}). Do not capitalize "the" unless it is formally a part of the [[Names of God|name of the deity]]. The same is true when referring to major religious figures and figures from mythology by titles or terms of respect ({{xt|the Prophet}}, {{xt|the Messiah}}, {{xt|the Virgin}}). Common nouns denoting deities or religious figures are not capitalized ({{xt|the Romans worshipped many gods}}; {{xt|many Anglo-Saxons worshipped the god Woden}}; {{xt|Jesus and Muhammad are both considered prophets in Islam}}; {{xt|biblical scholars dispute whether Mary was a virgin for her entire life}}; {{xt|his wife was his muse}}, but {{xt|the nine Muses}}).
{{main|Wikipedia:Manual of Style (capital letters)#Animals, plants, and other organisms}}
{{seealso|Wikipedia:WikiProject Tree of Life#Article titles|Wikipedia:Naming conventions (fauna)}}
When using scientific names, capitalize the genus but not the species (and italicize both); proper names incorporated into Latin species names are not capitalised. Common names should not normally be capitalized ({{xt|maple tree}}, {{xt|zebra}}); as an exception to this general rule, the official common names of birds are capitalized ({{xt|Bald Eagle}}). For new pages, ensure a [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Redirect|redirect]] from the alternative capitalization to prevent article duplication.
 
=== Celestial bodies ===
| ''Incorrect'' || ''(generic)'': || {{!xt|The University offers programs in arts and sciences.}}
|-
| ''Correct'' || ''(generic)'': || {{xt|The university offers programs in arts and sciences.}}
|-
| ''Correct'' || ''(title)'': || {{xt|The University of Delhi offers programs in arts and sciences.}}
|}
* '''Political or geographical units''' such as cities, towns, and countries follow the same rules: as proper nouns they require capitals; but as generic words (sometimes best omitted for simplicity) they do not.
::{|style="background:transparent"
|-
|''Incorrect'' || ''(generic)'': || {{!xt|The City has a population of 55,000.}}
|-
|''Correct'' || ''(generic)'': || {{xt|The city has a population of 55,000.}}
|-
|''Correct'' || ''(title)'': || {{xt|The City of Smithville has a population of 55,000.}}
|-
|''Correct'' || ''("city" omitted)'': || {{xt|Smithville has a population of 55,000.}}
|}
 
== {{Anchor|Acronyms and abbreviations|Acronyms|Initialisms|Shortenings}} Abbreviations ==
{{Main|Wikipedia:Manual of Style (abbreviations)}}
;Write out both the full version and the abbreviation at first occurrence
* When an abbreviation is to be used in an article, give the expression in full at first, followed immediately by the abbreviation in parentheses (round brackets). In the rest of the article the abbreviation can then be used by itself:
::{{xt|the New Democratic Party (NDP) won the 1990 Ontario election with a significant majority}}, at the first mention of the New Democratic Party; and
::{{xt|the NDP quickly became unpopular with the voters}}, at a subsequent mention.
:Make an exception for very common abbreviations; in most articles they require no expansion ({{xt|PhD}}, {{xt|DNA}}, {{xt|USSR}}).
 
* Do not apply initial capitals in a full version simply because capitals are used in the abbreviation.
::{|style="background:transparent"
|-
|''Incorrect'' || (not a proper noun)'': || {{!xt|We used Digital Scanning (DS) technology}}
|-
|''CorrectIncorrect'': || (not a proper noun)'': || {{!xt|We used digitalDigital scanningScanning (DS) technology}}
|-
|''Correct'' : || (a proper noun)'': || {{xt|TheWe filmused wasdigital produced by the British Broadcasting Corporationscanning (BBCDS) technology}}
|-
|''Correct'' || (a proper noun)'': || {{xt|The film was produced by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)}}
|}
 
* If the full version is already in round brackets, use a comma and ''or'' to indicate the abbreviation.
::{{xt|They first debated the issue in 1992 (at a convention of the New Democratic Party, or NDP)}}
 
:[[Acronyms and initialisms]], like other nouns, become plurals by adding {{xt|-s}} or {{xt|-es}} ({{xt|they produced three CD-ROMs in the first year}}; {{xt|the laptops were produced with three different BIOSes in 2006}}). As with other nouns, no apostrophe is used unless the form is a possessive.
;Periods (full stops) and spaces
* The letters in an acronym or an initialism are generally not separated by periods (full stops) or blank spaces ({{xt|GNP}}, {{xt|NORAD}}, {{xt|OBE}}, {{xt|GmbH}}). Periods and spaces that were traditionally required have now dropped out of usage ({{xt|PhD}} is now preferred over {{!xt|Ph.D.}} and {{!xt|Ph.&nbsp;D.}}). Periods are not used in units of measurement; see [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Manual of Style (dates and numbers)]]. There are some traditional exceptions ({{xt|i.e.}}, {{xt|e.g.}}; not {{!xt|ie}}, {{!xt|eg}}, {{!xt|i.&nbsp;e.}}, {{!xt|e.&nbsp;g.}}); and see below for {{xt|US}} and {{xt|U.S.}}
 
* Abbreviations formed by truncation ({{xt|Hon.}} for {{xt|Honorable}}), compression ({{xt|cmte.}} for {{xt|committee}}), or contraction ({{xt|Dr.}} for {{xt|Doctor}}) may or may not be closed with a period; a consistent style should be maintained within an article. A period is more usual in North American usage ({{xt|Dr. Smith of 42&nbsp;Drummond St.}}); ''no period'' is commonly preferred in British and other usage ({{xt|Dr Smith of 42&nbsp;Drummond St}}). British and some other authorities prefer to drop the period from truncated and compressed abbreviations generally ({{xt|XYZ Corp}}; {{xt|ABC Ltd}}), a practice favored in science writing. Regardless of punctuation, words that are abbreviated to more than one letter are spaced ({{xt|op.&nbsp;cit.}} or {{xt|op&nbsp;cit}}; not {{!xt|op.cit.}} or {{!xt|opcit}}). There are some exceptions: {{xt|PhD}} (see above) for "Philosophiae Doctor"; {{xt|BVetMed}} for "Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine".
 
;US and U.S.
;Do not use unwarranted abbreviations
:Avoid abbreviations when they might confuse the reader, interrupt the flow, or appear informal. For example, do not use {{!xt|approx.}} for {{xt|approximate}} or {{xt|approximately}}, except to reduce the width of an infobox or a table of data, or in a technical passage in which the term occurs many times.
::''See also [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Manual of Style (dates and numbers)]] for when to abbreviate units of measurement.''
;Do not invent abbreviations or acronyms
:Generally avoid making up new abbreviations, especially acronyms ({{xt|World Union of Billiards}} is good as a ''translation'' of {{xt|Union Mondiale de Billard}}, but neither it nor the reduction {{!xt|WUB}} is used by the organization; so use the original name and its official abbreviation, {{xt|UMB}}). If it is necessary to abbreviate a heading in a wide table of data, use widely recognized initialisms (for {{xt|United States gross national product}} use {{xt|US}} and {{xt|GNP}}, with a link if the term has not already been written out: {{xt|US&nbsp;[[Measures of national income and output|GNP]]}}; do not use the made-up initialism {{!xt|USGNP}}).
;HTML elements
:[[MediaWiki|The software]] that Wikipedia runs on does not support the [[HTML element #Phrase elements|HTML phrase element]] <code>&lt;acronym&gt;</code> (see [[Mediazilla:671]]). The <code>&lt;abbr&gt;</code> element can be used instead: <code><nowiki><abbr title="HyperText Markup Language">HTML</abbr></nowiki></code> generates <abbr title="HyperText Markup Language">HTML</abbr>.
 
=== Ampersand ===
{{shortcut|MOS:&|WP:&}}
The [[ampersand]] (&) substitutes for the word ''and'' (it was a form of Latin ''et''). In normal text, ''and'' should be used instead: {{xt|January 1&nbsp;and&nbsp;2}}, not {{!xt|January 1&nbsp;&&nbsp;2}}. Retain ampersands in titles of works or organizations, such as ''[[The Tom and Jerry Show (1975 TV series)|The Tom&nbsp;& Jerry Show]]'' or [[AT&T]]. Ampersands may be used with consistency and discretion in tables, infoboxes, and similar contexts where space is limited. Modern editions of old texts routinely replace ampersands with ''and'' (just as they replace other disused glyphs, [[Typographic ligature|ligatures]], and abbreviations); so an article's quotations may be cautiously modified, especially for consistency where different editions are quoted. (For similar allowable modifications see [[#Quotations|Quotations]], below.)
 
== Italics ==
{{further|[[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Manual of Style (text formatting)]]}}
; Emphasis
: Italics may be used ''sparingly'' to emphasize words in sentences (whereas boldface is normally not used for this purpose). Generally, the more highlighting in an article, the less its effectiveness.
: Use italics when ''mentioning'' a word or letter (see [[Use–mention distinction]]) or a string of words up to one full sentence ({{xt|the term ''panning'' is derived from ''panorama'', a word coined in 1787}}; {{xt|the most commonly used letter in English is ''e''}}). When a whole sentence is mentioned, quotation marks may be used instead, with consistency ({{xt|The preposition in ''She sat on the chair'' is ''on''}}; or {{xt|The preposition in "She sat on the chair" is "on"}}). ''Mentioning'' (to discuss such features as grammar, wording, and punctuation) is different from ''quoting'' (in which something is usually expressed on behalf of a quoted source).
; Foreign words
: Use italics for phrases in other languages and for isolated [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Manual of Style (text formatting)#Foreign terms|foreign words]] that are not common in everyday English. Proper names (such as place names) in other languages, however, are not usually italicized.
; <span id="Italics and quotations" ></span><!--This span creates a #-link target that is used elsewhere in this page.-->Quotations in italics
: For quotations, use only quotation marks (for short quotations) or block quoting (for long ones), not italics. (See [[#Quotations|Quotations]] below.) This means that (1) a quotation is not italicized inside quotation marks or a block quote just because it is a quotation, and (2) italics are no substitute for proper quotation formatting. One way to distinguish long block quotes from ordinary text is to use {{tl|quotation}}, which will box the text. Citation links may not work within such templates; if so, it may be necessary to use <nowiki><blockquote> and </blockquote></nowiki>.
; Italics within quotations
: Use italics within quotations if they are already in the source material. When adding italics on Wikipedia, add an editorial note {{xt|[emphasis added]}} after the quotation.
: {{xt2|"Now cracks a noble heart. Good night sweet prince: And ''flights of angels'' sing thee to thy rest" [emphasis added].}}
 
: If the source has used italics (or some other styling) for emphasis and this is not otherwise evident, the editorial note {{xt|[emphasis in original]}} should appear after the quotation.
; Effect on nearby punctuation
: Italicize only the elements of the sentence affected by the emphasis. Do not italicize surrounding punctuation.
::{|style="background:transparent"
|-
|-
|&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
|(Note the difference between {{!xt|''?''}} and {{xt|?}}. The question mark applies to the whole sentence, not just to the emphasized {{xt|that}}.)
|-
|valign=top rowspan=2|''Correct'':
|}
; Italicized links
: The italics markup must be outside the link markup, or the link will not work; however, internal italicization can be used in [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Piped link|piped links]].
::{|style="background:transparent"
|-valign=top
|''Incorrect'':&nbsp; &nbsp;||{{!xt|<code><nowiki>The opera [[''Turandot'']] is his best.</nowiki></code>}}
|-valign=top
|''Correct'': ||{{xt|<code><nowiki>The opera ''[[Turandot]]'' is his best.</nowiki></code>}}
|-valign=top
|''Correct'': ||{{xt|<code><nowiki>The [[USS Adder (SS-3)|USS ''Adder'' (SS-3)]] was a submarine.</nowiki></code>}}
|}
 
* It is advisable to use a [[non-breaking space]] (also known as a ''hard space'') to prevent the end-of-line displacement of elements that would be awkward at the beginning of a new line:
** in expressions in which figures and abbreviations (or symbols) are separated by a space (e.g. {{xt|17&nbsp;kg}}, {{xt|AD&nbsp;565}}, {{xt|2:50&nbsp;pm}});
** in other places where breaking across lines might be disruptive to the reader, especially in [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:WikiProject Infoboxes|infoboxes]], such as {{xt|£11&nbsp;billion}}, {{xt|{{CURRENTMONTHNAME}}&nbsp;{{CURRENTYEAR}}}}, {{xt|5°&nbsp;24′&nbsp;21.12″&nbsp;N}}, {{xt|Boeing&nbsp;747}}, after the number in a numbered address (e.g. {{xt|123&nbsp;Fake Street}}) and before [[Roman numerals]] at the end of phrases (e.g. {{xt|World War&nbsp;II}} and {{xt|Pope Benedict&nbsp;XVI}}); and
** within wikilinks like [[World War&nbsp;II]] (encoded as <code><nowiki>[[World War&amp;nbsp;II]]</nowiki></code>).<ref>[[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া talkবাৰ্তা:Manual of Style/Archive 115#nbsp in a link]]</ref>
* Unlike normal spaces, multiple hard spaces are not compressed by browsers into a single space.
 
:Preserve the original text, spelling, and punctuation. Where there is a good reason to make a change, insert an explanation within square brackets (for example, {{xt|[her father]}} replacing ''him'', where the context explaining ''him'' is omitted in the quotation). If there is a significant error in the original statement, use {{xt|[''[[sic]]'']}}, or the template {{tl|sic}} (which produces {{xt|{{sic}}}}), to show that the error was not made in transcription. Trivial spelling or typographical errors should be silently corrected (for example, correct {{!xt|ommission}} to {{xt|omission}}, {{!xt|harasssment}} to {{xt|harassment}})—unless the slip is textually important.
 
:Use [[#Ellipses|ellipses]] to indicate omissions from quoted text. Legitimate omissions include extraneous, irrelevant, or parenthetical words, and unintelligible or guttural speech ({{!xt|umm}}, and {{!xt|hmm}}). Do not omit text where doing so would remove essential context or alter the meaning of the text. When quoting a vulgarity or obscenity, it should appear exactly as it does in the cited source; words should never be [[bowdlerized]] by replacing letters with dashes, asterisks, or other symbols. In carrying over such an alteration from a quoted source, {{xt|[''[[sic]]'']}} may be used to indicate that the transcription is exact.
 
==== Allowable typographical changes ====
:Although the requirement of minimal change is strict, a few purely typographical elements of quoted text should be conformed to English Wikipedia's conventions without comment. This practice of conforming typographical styling to a publication's own "house style" is universal. Allowable typographical alterations include these:
:* Styling of dashes and hyphens: see [[#Dashes|Dashes]], below. Use the style chosen for the article: unspaced em dash or spaced en dash.
:* Styling of apostrophes and quotation marks: they should all be straight, not curly. See [[#Quotation marks|Quotation marks]], below. In quoting text from non-English sources, replace non-English typographical elements such as [[guillemets]] ({{!xt|«&nbsp;»}}) with their English-language equivalents; replace guillemets with straight quotation marks, and so on.
:* Spaces before punctuation such as periods and colons: these should be removed as alien to modern English-language publishing.
:* Some text styling should be altered. Of course the typeface will be automatically standardized; but generally preserve bold and italics (see [[#Italics|Italics]], above). Where the source is an old typewritten document such as an academic dissertation, [[underlining]] is almost certainly used to represent italics, and should be changed to italics as it would be by any book publisher.
:* When quoting from early modern sources, disused glyphs and ligatures should be normalized to modern usage when doing so will not change or obscure the meaning of the text. Examples of such changes include the following: æ→ae, œ→oe,ſ→s, and y<sup>e</sup>→the. Also see [[#Ampersand|Ampersand]], below.
:* If an entire sentence is quoted in such a way that it becomes a grammatical part of the larger sentence, the first letter loses its capitalization ({{xt|It turned out to be true that "a penny saved is a penny earned"}}).
 
==== Quotations within quotations ====
: When a quotation includes another quotation (and so on), start with double quote marks outermost, and, working inward, alternate single with double quote marks ({{xt|"She disputed his statement that 'Voltaire never said "I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.{{" ' "}}}}, with three levels of quotation). Adjacent quote marks, as at the end of that last example, can be difficult to read ({{!xt|"'"}}) unless [[Kerning#Digital_typographyDigital typography|kerned]] apart slightly with [[Cascading Style Sheets|CSS]]; the {{tl|" '}}, {{tl|' "}} and {{tl|" ' "}} templates will accomplish this; the example above is achieved by typing this: <code><nowiki>... your right to say it.{{"&nbsp;'&nbsp;"}}</nowiki></code>.
==== Attribution ====
: The author of a quote of a full sentence or more should be named; this is done in the main text and not in a footnote. However, attribution is unnecessary with quotations that are clearly from the person discussed in the article or section. When preceding a quotation with its attribution, [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Words to avoid#Synonyms for said|avoid characterizing it in a biased manner]].
 
==== Linking ====
: Format a long quote (more than four lines, or consisting of more than one paragraph, regardless of number of lines) as a [[block quotation]], which Wikimedia's software will indent from both margins. Do not enclose block quotations in quotation marks (and especially avoid decorative quotation marks in normal use, such as those provided by the {{tl|cquote}} template, which are reserved for [[pull quote]]s). Block quotations can be enclosed between a pair of <code>&lt;blockquote&gt;...&lt;/blockquote&gt;</code> HTML tags; or use {{tl|quotation}} or {{tl|quote}}.
Wikipedia's [[MediaWiki]] software does not render multiple paragraphs inside a <code>&lt;blockquote&gt;</code> simply by spacing the paragraphs apart with blank lines. A [[workaround]] is to enclose each block-quoted paragraph in its own <code>&lt;p&gt;...&lt;/p&gt;</code> element:
<sourcesyntaxhighlight lang="html4strict">
<blockquote>
<p>And bring us a lot of horilka, but not of that fancy kind with raisins,
<p>—[[Nikolai Gogol]], ''[[Taras Bulba]]''</p>
</blockquote>
</syntaxhighlight>
</source>
This will result in the following, indented on both sides (it may also be in a smaller font, depending on browser software):
{{xt2|<blockquote>
 
The {{tl|quote}} template provides the same semantic HTML formatting, as well as a workaround for the paragraph spacing bug and a pre-formatted attribution line:
<sourcesyntaxhighlight lang="html4strict">
{{quote|And bring us a lot of horilka, but not of that fancy kind with raisins,
or with any other such things—bring us horilka of the purest kind, give us that
demon drink that makes us merry, playful and wild!|[[Nikolai Gogol]]|''[[Taras Bulba]]''}}
</syntaxhighlight>
</source>
This will result in:
{{xt2|{{quote|And bring us a lot of horilka, but not of that fancy kind with raisins,
=== Foreign-language quotations ===
 
Quotations from foreign-language sources should be translated. Quotations which have been translated should be distinguished from those that have not. If they are available, the article should indicate the original source of the translation (if it was first published outside Wikipedia) and the original language (if it is not clear from the context).
 
If the original, untranslated text is available, editors are encouraged to provide a reference or to include it.
 
=== Quotation marks ===
{{dablink|See also [[#Quotations|Quotations]] above. For results of past discussions, see the [[WPৱিকিপিডিয়া:Manual of Style/Register#Quotation marks|Register]].}}
The term ''quotation'' in the material below also includes other uses of quotation marks such as those for titles of songs, chapters, episodes, unattributable aphorisms, [[String (computer science)|literal strings]], "[[scare quotes|scare-quoted]]" passages, and constructed examples.
 
Enclose quotations with double quotation marks ({{xt|Bob said, "Jim ate the apple."}}). Enclose quotations within quotations with single quotation marks ({{xt|Bob said, "Did Jim say 'I ate the apple' after he left?"}}).
 
Wikipedia prefers double quotation marks because some search engines cannot find quotations within single quotation marks, like {{!xt|'I ate the apple'}}. ([[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Searching|Wikipedia's search facility]] will only find such an expression if the search string is also within single quotation marks.) In addition, double quotation marks are harder to confuse with apostrophes.
 
; Article openings
: Do not use [[grave accent|grave]] and [[acute accent]]s or backticks ({{!xt|<big>'''`'''</big>text<big>'''´'''</big>}}) as quotation marks (or as apostrophes).
: There are two possible methods for rendering quotation marks at Wikipedia (that is, the [[Quotation mark glyphs|glyphs]], displayed with emphasis here, for clarity):
:* [[Quotation mark glyphs#Typewriter quotation marks|Typewriter]] or straight style: {{xt|<big>'''"'''</big>text<big>'''"'''</big>, <big><b>'</b>''''''</big>text<big><b>'</b>''''''</big>.}} '''Recommended at Wikipedia.'''
:* [[Quotation mark glyphs#Quotation marks in English|Typographic]] or curly style: {{!xt|<big>'''“'''</big>text<big>'''”'''</big>, <big>'''‘'''</big>text<big>'''’'''</big>.}} '''Not recommended at Wikipedia.'''
: The exclusive use of straight quotation marks and apostrophes (see [[#Apostrophes|preceding section]]) is recommended. They are easier to type in reliably, and to edit. Mixed use interferes with some searches, such as those using the browser's search facility (a search for {{xt|Alzheimer's disease}} could fail to find {{!xt|Alzheimer’s disease}} and vice versa).
These rules apply to both round brackets (&nbsp;{{xt|(&nbsp;)}}&nbsp;), often called [[Bracket|parentheses]], and square brackets (&nbsp;{{xt|[&nbsp;]}}&nbsp;).
 
If a sentence contains a bracketed phrase, place the sentence punctuation outside the brackets {{xt|(as shown here).}} However, where one or more sentences are wholly inside brackets, place their punctuation inside the brackets. (For examples, see [[#Sentences and brackets|Sentences and brackets]], below.) There should be no space next to the inner side of a bracket. An opening bracket should be preceded by a space, except in unusual cases; for example, when it is preceded by an opening quotation mark, another opening bracket, or a portion of a word:
:{{xt2|He rose to address the meeting: "(Ahem)&nbsp;... Ladies and gentlemen, welcome!"}}
:{{xt2|Only the royal characters in the play ([Prince] Hamlet and his family) habitually speak in blank verse.}}
|''Incorrect'':&nbsp; &nbsp;||{{!xt|Nikifor Grigoriev (c. 1885–1919) (also known as Matviy Hryhoriyiv) was a Ukrainian insurgent leader.}}
|-valign=top
|''Correct'': ||{{xt|Nikifor Grigoriev (c. 1885–1919), also known as Matviy Hryhoriyiv, was a Ukrainian insurgent leader.}}
|-valign=top
|''Correct'': ||{{xt|Nikifor Grigoriev (c. 1885–1919) was a Ukrainian insurgent leader. He was also known as Matviy Hryhoriyiv.}}
|}
Square brackets are used to indicate editorial replacements and insertions within quotations, though this should never alter the intended meaning. They serve three main purposes:
* If any sentence includes material that is enclosed in square or round brackets, it still must end—with a period, or a question or exclamation mark—''after'' those brackets. This principle applies no matter what punctuation is used within the brackets:
::{{xt|She refused all requests (except for basics such as food, medicine, etc.).}}
* However, if the entire sentence is within brackets, the closing punctuation falls within the brackets. (This sentence is an example.) This does not apply to matter that is added (or modified editorially) at the beginning of a sentence for clarity, which is usually in square brackets:
::{{xt|"[Principal Skinner] already told me that", he objected.}}
:That is preferable to this, which is potentially ambiguous:
::{{xt|Clare demanded that he drive to the supermarket; she knew he hated driving.}}
 
==== Brackets and linking ====
If the text of a link needs to contain one or more square brackets, "escape" these using {{tag|nowiki}} tags or the appropriate [[numerical character reference]].
{| class="wikitable"
|-
| <pre style="margin:0px; white-space:normal;">*Branwen, Gwern (2009). [http://lists.wikimedia.org/pipermail/wikien-l/2009-November/105182.html &lt;nowiki&gt;[WikiEN-l]&lt;/nowiki&gt; Chinese start caring about copyright].</pre> ||
* Branwen, Gwern (2009). [http://lists.wikimedia.org/pipermail/wikien-l/2009-November/105182.html <nowiki>[WikiEN-l]</nowiki> Chinese start caring about copyright].
|}
If a URL itself contains square brackets, the wiki-text should use the url-encoded form: {{xt|1=<code>something.php?query=%5Bxxx%5Dxxx&whatever=else</code>}} rather than {{!xt|1=<code>query=[xxx]bar</code>}} to avoid truncating the link text after "xxx". Of course, this issue only arises for external links as MediaWiki software forbids square brackets in page titles.
:{|style="background:transparent"
|-valign=top
|''Incorrect'': ||{{!xt|Burke and Wills, fed by local Aborigines (on beans, fish, and "ngardu") survived for a few months.}}
|-valign=top
|''Correct'':&nbsp; &nbsp;||{{xt|Burke and Wills, fed by local Aborigines (on beans, fish, and "ngardu"), survived for a few months.}}
:{|style="background:transparent"
|-valign=top
|''Incorrect'': ||{{!xt|She said, "punctuation styles on Wikipedia change too often," as well as making other complaints.}}
|-valign=top
|''Correct'':&nbsp; &nbsp;||{{xt|She said, "punctuation styles on Wikipedia change too often", as well as making other complaints.}}
:{|style="background:transparent"
|-valign=top
|''Awkward'': ||{{!xt|Mozart was, along with the Haydns, both Joseph and Michael, and also Beethoven, one of Schubert's heroes.}}
|-valign=top
|''Much better'':&nbsp; &nbsp;||{{xt|Schubert's heroes included Mozart, Beethoven, and Joseph and Michael Haydn.}}
==== Serial commas ====
{{shortcut|MOS:SERIAL}}
A [[serial comma]] (also known as an ''Oxford comma'' or a ''Harvard comma'') is a comma used immediately before a conjunction in a list of three or more items: the phrase {{xt|ham, chips, and eggs}} includes a serial comma, while the variant {{xt|ham, chips and eggs}} omits it. Editors may use either convention on Wikipedia so long as each article is consistent within itself. However, there are some times when the serial comma can create or remove confusion:
 
Sometimes omitting the comma can lead to an ambiguous sentence, as in this example:
* To list two people: {{xt|The author thanked President Obama and her mother, Sinéad O'Connor.}}
* To list three people: {{xt|The author thanked her mother, President Obama, and Sinéad O'Connor.}}
*: The clarity of the last example depends on the reader's knowing that Obama is male and cannot be a mother. If we change the example slightly, we are back to an ambiguous statement: {{!xt|The author thanked her mother, Irish President Mary McAleese, and Sinéad O'Connor.}}
** Clearer: {{xt|The author thanked President Obama, Sinéad O'Connor, and her mother}}; or {{xt|The author thanked President Mary McAleese, Sinéad O'Connor, and her mother}}.
 
:{|style="background:transparent"
|-valign=top
|''Correct'': ||{{xt|He attempted it in two years: 1941 and 1943.}}
|-valign=top
|''Incorrect'':&nbsp; &nbsp;||{{!xt|The years he attempted it included: 1941 and 1943.}}
No sentence should contain more than one colon. There should never be a hyphen or a dash immediately following a colon. Only a single space follows a colon.
 
=== Semicolons ===
A [[semicolon]] ({{xt|;}}) is sometimes an alternative to a full stop (period), enabling related material to be kept in the same sentence; it marks a more decisive division in a sentence than a comma. If the semicolon separates clauses, normally each clause must be independent (meaning that it could stand on its own as a sentence); often, only a comma or only a semicolon will be correct in a given sentence.
 
:{|style="background:transparent"
|-valign=top
|''Correct'': ||{{xt|Though he had been here before, I did not recognize him.}}
|-valign=top
|''Incorrect'':&nbsp; &nbsp;||{{!xt|Though he had been here before; I did not recognize him.}}
:{|style="background:transparent"
|-valign=top
|''Correct'': ||{{xt|Oranges are an acid fruit; bananas are classified as alkaline.}}
|-valign=top
|''Incorrect'':&nbsp; &nbsp;||{{!xt|Oranges are an acid fruit, bananas are classified as alkaline.}}
:{|style="background:transparent"
|-valign=top
|''Accepted'': ||{{xt|"Life is short, art is long."}} (citing a brief [[aphorism]]; see [[Ars longa, vita brevis]])
|-valign=top
|''Accepted'': ||{{xt|"I have studied it, you have not."}} (reporting brisk conversation, like this reply of [[Isaac Newton|Newton]]'s)
|}
 
:{|style="background:transparent"
|-valign=top
|''Unwieldy'': ||{{!xt|Oranges are an acid fruit; bananas are classified as alkaline; pears are close to neutral; these distinctions are rarely discussed.}}
|-valign=top
|''One better way'':&nbsp; &nbsp;||{{xt|Oranges are an acid fruit, bananas are alkaline, and pears are close to neutral; these distinctions are rarely discussed.}}
|}
 
==== Semicolon before "however" ====
{{shortcut|MOS:HOWEVERPUNC|WP:HOWEVERPUNC}}
The meaning of a sentence containing a trailing clause that starts with the word "however" depends on the punctuation preceding that word. A common error is to use the wrong punctuation, thereby changing the meaning to one not intended.
:{|style="background:transparent"
|-valign=top
| ||{{xt|It was obvious they could not convert these people; however, they tried.}}
|-valign=top
|''Meaning'': ||{{xt|It was obvious they could not convert these people. Nevertheless, they tried.}}
|}
 
:{|style="background:transparent"
|-valign=top
| ||{{xt|It was obvious they could not convert these people, however they tried.}}
|-valign=top
|''Meaning'': ||{{xt|It was obvious they could not convert these people, regardless of how they tried.}}
|}
 
:{|style="background:transparent"
|-valign=top
| ||{{xt|However they tried, it was obvious they could not convert these people.}}
|-valign=top
|''Meaning'': ||{{xt|Regardless of how hard they tried, it was obvious they could not convert these people.}}
|}
 
:{|style="background:transparent"
|-valign=top
| ||{{xt|He did not know, however, that the venue had been changed at the last minute.}}
|-valign=top
|''Meaning'': ||{{xt|However, he did not know that the venue had been changed at the last minute.}}
|}
 
=== Hyphens ===
{{dablink|For results of past discussions, see the [[WPৱিকিপিডিয়া:Manual of Style/Register#Hyphens|Register]].}}
Hyphens ({{xt|-}}) indicate conjunction. There are three main uses.
# To distinguish between '''homographs''' ({{xt|re-dress}} means ''dress again'', but {{xt|redress}} means ''remedy'' or ''set right'').
#* A hyphen can help to disambiguate ({{xt|little-celebrated paintings}} is not a reference to little paintings; {{xt|a government-monitoring program}} is a program that monitors the government, whereas {{xt|a government monitoring program}} is a government program that monitors something else).
#* Many compounds that are hyphenated when used attributively (before the noun they qualify: {{xt|a light-blue handbag}}), are not hyphenated when used predicatively (separated from the noun: {{xt|the handbag was light blue}}). Hyphenation also occurs in proper names, such as {{xt|Great Black-backed Gull}}. Where there would be a loss of clarity, the hyphen may be used in the predicative case as well ({{xt|hand-fed turkeys}}, {{xt|the turkeys were hand-fed}}).
#* A hyphen is not used after a standard ''-ly'' adverb ({{xt|a newly available home}}, {{xt|a wholly owned subsidiary}}) unless part of a larger compound ({{xt|a slowly-but-surely strategy}}). A few words ending in {{xt|-ly}} function as both adjectives and adverbs ({{xt|a kindly-looking teacher}}; {{xt|a kindly provided facility}}). Some such dual-purpose words (like {{xt|early}}, {{xt|only}}, {{xt|northerly}}) are not standard {{xt|-ly}} adverbs, since they are not formed by addition of {{xt|-ly}} to an independent current-English adjective. These need careful treatment: {{xt|Early flowering plants evolved along with sexual reproduction}}, but {{xt|Early-flowering plants risk damage from winter frosts}}; {{xt|northerly-situated islands}}.
#* A hyphen is normally used when the adverb ''well'' precedes a participle used attributively ({{xt|a well-meaning gesture}}; but normally {{xt|a very well managed firm}}, since ''well'' itself is modified); and even predicatively, if {{xt|well}} is necessary to, or alters, the sense of the adjective rather than simply intensifying it ({{xt|the gesture was well-meaning}}, {{xt|the child was well-behaved}}, but {{xt|the floor was well polished}}).
#* In some cases, like {{xt|diode–transistor logic}}, the independent status of the linked elements requires an en dash instead of a hyphen. See [[#En dashes|En dashes]] below.
:::{|style="background:transparent"
|-valign=top
|''Incorrect'': ||{{!xt|9-mm gap}}
|-valign=top
|''Correct'': ||{{xt|9&nbsp;mm gap}} (entered as <code>9&amp;nbsp;mm gap</code>)
|-valign=top
|''Incorrect'':&nbsp; &nbsp;||{{!xt|9&nbsp;millimetre gap}}
|-valign=top
|''Correct'': ||{{xt|9-millimetre gap}}
|-valign=top
|''Correct'': ||{{xt|12-hour shift}}
|-valign=top
|''Correct'': ||{{xt|12&nbsp;h shift}}
|}
 
'''Spacing:''' A hyphen is never followed or preceded by a space, except when hanging (see above) or when used to display parts of words independently, such as the prefix {{xt|sub-}} and the suffix {{xt|-less}}.
 
'''Image filenames and redirects:''' Image filenames are not part of encyclopedic content; they're tools. They are most useful tools if they can be readily typed, so they always use hyphens instead of dashes. Similarly, article titles with dashes should have a corresponding redirect from the title with hyphens: for example, {{xt|[[Michelson-Morley experiment]]}} redirects to {{xt|[[Michelson–Morley experiment]]}}, as the latter title, while correct, is harder to search for.
 
Hyphenation involves many subtleties that cannot be covered here; the rules and examples presented above illustrate the broad principles that inform current usage.
{{shortcut|MOS:DASH|WP:DASH}}
 
Two forms of dash are used on Wikipedia: '''[[en dash]]''' (–) and '''[[em dash]]''' (—). Type them in as <code>&amp;ndash;</code> (–) and <code>&amp;mdash;</code> (—) or click on them to the right of the "Insert" tab under the edit window; or see [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:How to make dashes|How to make dashes]].
* When [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Article titles|naming an article]], do not use a hyphen as a substitute for an en dash that properly belongs in the title, for example in [[Eye–hand span]]. To aid searching and linking, provide a redirect from the corresponding article title with hyphens in place of en dashes, as in [[Eye-hand span]].
 
Sources use dashes in varying ways, but for consistency and clarity Wikipedia adopts the following principles.
 
==== Punctuating a sentence (em or en dashes) ====
{{shortcut|MOS:EMDASH|WP:EMDASH|WP:MDASH|}}
 
 
;1. Unspaced em dash
* {{xt|Another "planet" was detected—but it was later found to be a moon of Saturn.}}
 
Or:
 
;2. Spaced en dash
* {{xt|Another "planet" was detected&nbsp;– but it was later found to be a moon of Saturn.}}
 
Do not use spaced em dashes.
* {{!xt|Another "planet" was detected&nbsp;— but it was later found to be a moon of Saturn.}}
 
Dashes can clarify the sentence structure when there are already commas or parentheses, or both.
* {{xt|We read them in chronological order: Descartes, Locke, Hume—but not his ''Treatise'' (it is too complex)—and Kant.}}
 
Use dashes sparingly. More than two in a single sentence makes the structure unclear; it takes time for the reader to see which dashes, if any, form a pair.
* {{xt|The birds—at least the ones Darwin collected—had red and blue feathers.}}
* {{xt|"Where is the—", she said, but then realized she held it in her hand.}}
* Avoid: {{!xt|First in the procession—and most spectacularly—came the bishops—then the other clergy.}}
 
{{anchor|En dashes}}
 
==== En dashes: other uses ====
{{shortcut|MOS:ENDASH|MOS:NDASH|WP:ENDASH|WP:NDASH}}
 
 
;1. In ranges that might otherwise be expressed with ''to'' or ''through''
* {{xt|pp.&nbsp;211–19}};&nbsp;&nbsp; {{xt|64–75%}};&nbsp;&nbsp; {{xt|the 1939–45 war}}
Do not mix en dashes with prepositions like ''between'' and ''from''.
* {{xt|450–500 people}}
* {{xt|between 450 and 500 people}}, not {{!xt|between 450–500 people}}
* {{xt|from 450 to 500 people}}, not {{!xt|from 450–500 people}}
If negative values are involved, an en dash might be confusing. Use words instead.
* {{xt|&minus;10−10 to 10}}, not {{!xt|&minus;10–10−10–10}}
* {{xt|the drop in temperature was from 5° to &minus;13−13°}}, not {{!xt|the drop in temperature was 5°–&minus;13–−13°}}
 
The en dash in a range is always unspaced, except when the endpoints of the range already include at least one space.
* {{xt|23&nbsp;July 1790&nbsp;– 1&nbsp;December 1791}}, not {{!xt|23&nbsp;July 1790–1&nbsp;December 1791}}
* {{xt|14&nbsp;May&nbsp;– 2&nbsp;August 2011}}, not {{!xt|14&nbsp;May–2&nbsp;August 2011}}
* {{xt|10:30&nbsp;pm Tuesday&nbsp;– 1:25&nbsp;am Wednesday}};&nbsp;&nbsp; {{xt|Christmas Day&nbsp;– New Year's Eve}};&nbsp;&nbsp; {{xt|Christmas 2001&nbsp;– Easter 2002}}
* {{xt|1–17 September}};&nbsp;&nbsp; {{xt|February–October 2009}};&nbsp;&nbsp; {{xt|1492?&nbsp;– 7&nbsp;April 1556}}
* {{xt|Best absorbed were wavelengths in the range 28&nbsp;mm&nbsp;– 17&nbsp;m.}}
 
;2. In compounds when the connection might otherwise be expressed with ''to'', ''versus'', ''and'', or ''between''
Here the relationship is thought of as parallel, symmetric, equal, oppositional, or at least involving ''separate or independent elements''. The components may be nouns, adjectives, verbs, or any other independent part of speech. Often if the components are reversed there would be little change of meaning.
* {{xt|boyfriend–girlfriend problems}};&nbsp;&nbsp; {{xt|the Paris–Montpellier route}};&nbsp;&nbsp; {{xt|a New York–Los Angeles flight}}
* {{xt|iron–cobalt interactions}}; the components are parallel and reversible; iron and cobalt retain their identity
* Wrong: {{!xt|an iron–roof shed}}; ''iron'' modifies ''roof'', so use a hyphen: {{xt|an iron-roof shed}}
* Wrong: {{!xt|the poet's mentor–muse}}; not separate persons, so use a hyphen: {{xt|the poet's mentor-muse}}
* {{xt|red–green colorblind}}; red and green are separate independent colors, not mixed
* Wrong: {{!xt|blue–green algae}}; a blended, intermediate color, so use a hyphen: {{xt|blue-green algae}}
* Wrong: {{!xt|Franco–British rivalry}}; "Franco" is a ''combining form'', not independent; use a hyphen: {{xt|Franco-British rivalry}}
* {{xt|France–Britain rivalry}};&nbsp;&nbsp; {{xt|French–British rivalry}}
* {{xt|a 51–30 win}};&nbsp;&nbsp; {{xt|a six–two majority decision}}
* {{xt|an Italian–Swiss border crossing}}; but {{xt|an Italian-Swiss newspaper}}, for Italian-speaking Swiss
* {{xt|Japanese–American trade}}; but {{xt|a family of Japanese-Americans}} (or {{xt|a family of Japanese Americans}})
* {{xt|the Uganda–Tanzania War}};&nbsp;&nbsp; {{xt|the Roman–Syrian War}};&nbsp;&nbsp; {{xt|the east–west runway}};&nbsp;&nbsp; {{xt|the Lincoln–Douglas debates}};&nbsp;&nbsp; {{xt|a carbon–carbon bond}}
* {{xt|diode–transistor logic}};&nbsp;&nbsp; {{xt|the analog–digital distinction}}&nbsp;&nbsp; {{xt|push–pull output}}&nbsp;&nbsp; {{xt|on–off switch}}
* {{xt|a pro-establishment–anti-intellectual alliance}};&nbsp;&nbsp; {{xt|Singapore–Sumatra–Java shipping lanes}}
* {{xt|the ballerina's rapid walk–dance transitions}};&nbsp;&nbsp; {{xt|a male–female height ratio of 1.14}}
A slash or some other alternative may occasionally be better to express a ratio, especially in technical contexts (see [[#Slashes|Slashes]] below).
* {{xt|the protein–fat ratio}},&nbsp; or&nbsp; {{xt|the protein/fat ratio}},&nbsp; or&nbsp; {{xt|the protein-to-fat ratio}}
An en dash is not used for a hyphenated personal name.
* {{xt|Lennard-Jones potential}} with a hyphen: named after John Lennard-Jones
An en dash ''is'' used for the names of two or more people in a compound.
* {{xt|the Seifert–van Kampen theorem}};&nbsp;&nbsp; {{xt|the Seeliger–Donker-Voet scheme}};&nbsp;&nbsp; {{xt|the Alpher–Bethe–Gamow theory}}
* {{xt|Comet Hale–Bopp}} or just {{xt|Hale–Bopp}} (discovered by Hale and Bopp)
By default, follow the dominant convention that a hyphen is used in compounded proper names of single entities, not an en dash.
* {{xt|Guinea-Bissau}}; Bissau is the capital, and this distinguishes the country from neighboring Guinea
* {{xt|McGraw-Hill}}, a publishing house
 
The en dash in all of the compounds above is unspaced.
 
;3. Instead of a hyphen, when applying a prefix to a compound that includes a space
* {{xt|ex–prime minister Thatcher}};&nbsp;&nbsp; {{xt|pre–World War II aircraft}}
Use this punctuation when there are compelling grounds for retaining the construction. For example, from a speech that is simply transcribed and cannot be re-worded; or in a heading where it has been judged most natural as a common name. Otherwise recasting is better.
* Keep: [[Post–September 11 anti-war movement]]; [[Trans–New Guinea languages]] (existing Wikipedia articles)
* Best to recast the examples shown above: {{xt|former prime minister Thatcher}}; {{xt|aircraft before World War II}}
* Very awkward: {{!xt|the mother had post–difficult birth health problems}}; recast as {{xt|the mother had health problems after a difficult birth}}
 
The en dash in all of the compounds above is unspaced.
Spaced en dashes are used within parts of certain lists. Here are two examples:
* Pairing performers with instruments.
** {{xt|James Galway&nbsp;– flute; Anne-Sophie Mutter&nbsp;– violin; Maurizio Pollini&nbsp;– piano.}}
* Showing track durations on a CD.
** {{xt|The future&nbsp;– 7:21; Ain't no cure for love&nbsp;– 6:17; Bird on the wire&nbsp;– 6:14.}}
 
==== Other dashes ====
 
An unspaced slash may be used:
* to indicate [[phonemic]] [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Manual of Style (pronunciation)|pronunciations]] ({{xt|''ribald'' is pronounced {{IPA|/ˈrɪbəld/}}}})
* to separate the numerator and denominator in a fraction ({{xt|7/8}} or {{xt|{{frac|7|8}}}})
* to indicate regular defined yearly periods that do not coincide with calendar years ({{xt|the 2009/10 academic year}}, {{xt|the 2010/11 hockey season}}; see [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Manual of Style (dates and numbers)#Longer periods]])
* where a slash occurs in a phrase widely used outside Wikipedia, and a different construction would be inaccurate, unfamiliar, or ambiguous
 
Do not use the [[backslash]] character ({{!xt|&nbsp;\&nbsp;}}) in place of a slash.
 
Prefer the division operator ({{xt|&nbsp;÷&nbsp;}}) to ({{xt|&nbsp;/&nbsp;}}) when representing elementary arithmetic in general prose: {{xt|{{nowrap|10 ÷ 2 {{=}} 5}}}}. In more advanced mathematical formulas, a [[Vinculum (symbol)|vinculum]] or slash is preferred: <math>\textstyle\frac{x^n}{n!}</math> or {{xt|''x''<sup>''n''</sup>/''n''!}}. (See [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Manual of Style (dates and numbers)#Common mathematical symbols]] and [[Helpসহায়:Displaying a formula]].)
 
==== And/or ====
*Do not use the symbol [[Numero sign|№]].
 
=== Terminal punctuation ===
{{Shortcut|MOS:FULLSTOP|MOS:EXCLAMATION}}
* [[Full stop|Periods]] (also called "full stops"), [[question mark]]s, and [[exclamation mark]]s are [[terminal punctuation]], the only punctuation marks used to end sentences in English.
In normal prose, never place a space before commas, semicolons, colons, or terminal punctuation, but place a space after them.
 
==== Spaces following terminal punctuation ====
The number of spaces following the terminal punctuation of a sentence in the wiki markup makes no difference on Wikipedia because the MediaWiki software condenses any number of spaces to just one when rendering the page (see [[Sentence spacing]]). For this reason, editors may use any spacing style they prefer on Wikipedia. Multiple spacing styles may coexist in the same article, and adding or removing a double space is sometimes used as a [[Helpসহায়:dummy edit|dummy edit]].
 
=== Consecutive punctuation marks ===
{{Shortcut|MOS:CONSECUTIVE}}
Where a proper noun that includes terminal punctuation ends a sentence, do not add a second terminal punctuation mark. Where such a noun occurs mid-sentence, punctuation may be added.
<ol class="references">
<li id="noteFoot01a"
><b>'''[[#nbFoot01a|^]]</b>''' Miller, E: ''The Sun'', page 23. Academic Press, 2005.</li>
<li id="noteFoot02a"
><b>'''[[#nbFoot02a|^]]</b>''' Brown, R: "Size of the Moon", ''Scientific American'', 51(78):46.</li>
</ol>
 
Punctuation marks that are exceptions to this principle include dashes, as well as some phrases within parentheses. For details, see [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Manual of Style (footnotes)#Ref tags, spacing and punctuation|Ref tags, spacing and punctuation]] on the footnotes style page.
 
=== Punctuation after formulae ===
A sentence that ends with a formula should have terminal punctuation (period, exclamation mark, or question mark) after the formula. Within a sentence, other punctuation (such as comma or colon) is used after a formula just as it would be if the text were not a formula. See [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Manual of Style (mathematics)#Punctuation after formulae]].
 
== Chronological items ==
 
The articles that deal specifically with units of measurement, their names and their symbols address a number of situations including:
*[[WPৱিকিপিডিয়া:MOSNUM#Which units to use|Which units to use]]: metric, imperial/US or both
*[[WPৱিকিপিডিয়া:MOSNUM#Unit_conversions|How to write supplementary units]]; for example, whether to write
:"The African elephant is 4 m at the shoulder"
:"The African elephant is 4 m (13 ft) at the shoulder"
:"The African elephant is 13 ft (4 m) at the shoulder" or
:"The African elephant is 13 ft at the shoulder"
*[[WPৱিকিপিডিয়া:MOSNUM#Avoiding_ambiguities|Dealing with ambiguities]]; for example, is that gallon a US gallon or an imperial gallon?
*[[WPৱিকিপিডিয়া:MOSNUM#Unnecessary vagueness|Use of quantitative information]] such as 4&nbsp;metres or 13&nbsp;ft rather than qualitative information such as "big", "small" etc.
*[[WPৱিকিপিডিয়া:MOSNUM#Unit names and symbols|Presenting unit names and symbols]] in a consistent manner.
*[[WPৱিকিপিডিয়া:MOSNUM#Quantities of bytes and bits|Presentation of digital quantities]] (bit, byte) that are used in the information technology industry.
*[[WPৱিকিপিডিয়া:MOSNUM#Adopting suggestions from standards bodies|Following conventions]] laid down by standards bodies such as ISO.
 
In instances where these principles appear to conflict with one another, consult other editors on the article's talk page and try to reach consensus.
* [[Exponentiation]] is indicated using a superscript, {{xt|''a<sup>n''</sup>}} (typed as <code><nowiki>a<sup>n</sup></nowiki></code>). [[Exponential notation]] can be spaced or unspaced, depending on circumstances.
* Do not use programming language notation outside computer program listings. In most programming languages, subtraction, multiplication, and exponentiation are respectively represented by the [[hyphen-minus]] <code>-</code>, the [[asterisk]] <code>*</code>, and the [[caret]] or double asterisk <code>^</code> or <code>**</code>, and [[scientific notation]] is replaced by [[E notation]].
* Symbols for [[binary operator]]s and [[binary relation|relationrelations]]s are spaced on both sides:
** plus, minus, and plus-or-minus (as binary operators): {{xt|+}}, {{xt|−}}, {{xt|±}} (as in {{xt|5&nbsp;−&nbsp;3}});
** multiplication and division: {{xt|×}}, {{xt|÷}};
Also avoid ''we'', ''us'', and ''our'': {{!xt|We should note that some critics have argued in favor of our proposal}} (personal rather than encyclopedic). But these forms are acceptable in certain figurative uses. For example:
* In historical articles to mean the modern world as a whole: {{xt|The text of ''De re publica'' has come down to us with substantial sections missing.}}
* The author's ''we'' found in scientific writing: {{xt|We are thus led also to a definition of "time" in physics}} (Albert Einstein); {{xt|Throughout the proof of this theorem we assume that the function ''&fnof;ƒ'' is uniformly continuous}}. Often rephrasing is preferable: {{xt|Throughout the proof of this theorem it is assumed that the function ''&fnof;ƒ'' is uniformly continuous.}}
 
=== Second-person pronouns ===
Some [[collective nouns]]—such as ''army'', ''company'', ''crowd'', ''fleet'', ''government'', ''majority'', ''mess'', ''number'', ''pack'', and ''party''—may refer either to a single entity or to the members that compose it. In British English, such words are commonly treated as singular or plural according to context. Names of towns and countries take plural verbs when they refer to sports teams but singular verbs when they refer to the actual place (or to the club as a business enterprise): in {{xt|[[England national football team|England]] are playing [[Germany national football team|Germany]] tonight}}, ''England'' refers to a [[Association football|football]] team; but in {{xt|England is the most populous country of the United Kingdom}}, it refers to the country. In North American English, these words (and ''the United States'', for historical reasons) are almost invariably treated as singular. See also ''[[#National varieties of English|National varieties of English]]'' above.
 
== Vocabulary ==
=== Contractions === <!-- section ''Possessives'' above links here -->
{{shortcut|MOS:N'T|WP:CONTRACTION}}
[[Contraction (grammar)|Uncontracted]] forms such as ''do not'' or ''it is'' are the default in encyclopedic style; ''don't'' and ''it's'' are too informal. But contractions should not be expanded mechanically. Sometimes rewriting the sentence as a whole is preferable; and occasionally contractions provide the best solution anyway.
 
=== Gender-neutral language ===
{{dablink|See also [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Gender-neutral language]]. For results of past discussions, see the [[WPৱিকিপিডিয়া:Manual of Style/Register#Gender-neutral language|Register]].}}
Use [[gender-neutral language]] where this can be done with clarity and precision. This does not apply to direct quotations or the titles of works (''{{xt|The Ascent of Man}}''), which should not be altered; nor where all referents are of one gender, such as in an all-female school ({{xt|When any student breaks that rule, she loses privileges}}).
 
{{See also|Wikipedia:Words to watch#Editorializing}}
{{shortcut|MOS:NOTED}}
Avoid such phrases as ''remember that'' and ''note that'', which [[Imperative mood|address readers directly]] in an unencyclopedic tone. Similarly, phrases such as ''of course'', ''naturally'', ''obviously'', ''clearly'', and ''actually'' make presumptions about readers' knowledge, and call into question the reason for including the information in the first place. Do not ''tell'' readers that something is ironic, surprising, unexpected, amusing, coincidental, etc. This supplies a [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Neutral point of view|point of view]]. Simply state the sourced facts and allow readers to draw their own conclusions.
 
=== Subset terms ===
=== Identity ===
{{shortcut|MOS:IDENTITY}}
* Disputes over how to refer to a person or group are addressed by policies such as [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Verifiability|Verifiability]], [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Neutral point of view|Neutral point of view]], and [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Article titles|Article titles]] where the term appears in the title of an article. When there is no dispute, the term most commonly used for a person will be the one that person uses for himself or herself, and the most common terms for a group will be those that the group most commonly uses for itself. Wikipedia should use them too. (See for example the article [[Jew]], which demonstrates that most Jews prefer that term to "Jewish person".)
* Any person whose gender might be questioned should be referred to using the gendered nouns, pronouns, and possessive adjectives that reflect that person's ''latest'' expressed gender self-identification. This applies when referring to any phase of that person's life. Nevertheless, avoid confusing or seemingly logically impossible text that could result from pronoun usage (for example: instead of {{!xt|She fathered her first child}}, write {{xt|She became a parent for the first time}}).<!-- Note: some related points are under discussion at WT:BLP#Titillating_sources. Any policy changes might have an effect here. -->
* Use specific terminology. For example, often it is more appropriate for people from Ethiopia (a country in Africa) to be described as ''Ethiopian'', not carelessly (with the risk of [[stereotyping]]) as ''African''.
Names not originally written in a [[Latin alphabet]] (written for example in Greek, Cyrillic, or Chinese scripts) must be given a [[Romanization|romanized]] form for use in English. Use a systematically [[Transliteration|transliterated]] or otherwise romanized name ({{xt|Aleksandr Tymoczko}}, {{xt|Wang Yanhong}}); but if there is a common English form of the name ({{xt|Tchaikovsky}}, {{xt|Chiang Kai-shek}}), use that form instead.
 
The use of [[diacritic]]s (such as accent marks) for foreign words is neither encouraged nor discouraged; their usage depends on whether they appear in [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Verifiability|verifiable reliable sources]] in English and on the constraints imposed by specialized Wikipedia guidelines. Provide [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Redirect#Alternative names and languages|redirects]] from alternative forms that use or exclude diacritics.
 
Spell a name consistently in the title and the text of an article. See relevant policy at [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Article titles|Article titles]]; see also [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Naming conventions (use English)|Naming conventions (use English)]]. For foreign names, phrases, and words generally, adopt the spellings most commonly used in English-language references for the article, unless those spellings are idiosyncratic or obsolete. If a foreign term does not appear in the article's references, adopt the spelling most commonly used in other [[WPৱিকিপিডিয়া:SOURCES|verifiable reliable sources]] (for example [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Naming conventions (geographic names)#Widely accepted name|other English-language dictionaries and encyclopedias]]). For punctuation of compounded forms, see relevant guidelines in [[#Punctuation|Punctuation]], above.
 
Sometimes the usage will be influenced by other guidelines such as [[#National varieties of English|National varieties of English]], above, which may lead to different choices in different articles.
Some topics are intrinsically technical, but editors should try to make them accessible to as many readers as possible. Minimize jargon, or at least explain it; or tag it using {{tl|Cleanup-jargon}} or {{tl|Jargon-statement}} for other editors to fix. For unavoidably technical articles a separate introductory article (like [[Introduction to special relativity]]) may be the best solution. Avoid excessive ''wikilinking'' (linking within Wikipedia) as a substitute for parenthetic explanations such as the one in this sentence. Do not introduce new and specialized words simply to teach them to the reader, when more common alternatives will do.
 
=== Geographical items ===
{{see also|Wikipedia:Naming conventions (geographic names)}}
Places should generally be referred to consistently using the same name as in the title of their article (see [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Naming conventions (geographic names)]]). Exceptions are made if there is a widely accepted historical English name appropriate to the given context. In cases where such a historical name is used, it should be followed by the modern name in round brackets (parentheses) on the first occurrence of the name in applicable sections of the article. This resembles linking; it should not be done to the detriment of style. On the other hand, it is probably better to provide such a variant too often than too rarely. If more than one historical name is applicable for a given context, the other names should be added after the modern English name, that is: "historical name (modern name, other historical names)".
 
== Images ==
{{see|Wikipedia:Image use policy|Wikipedia:Picture tutorial}}
 
* [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Manual of Style (infoboxes)|Infoboxes]], images, and related content in the lead must be right-aligned.
* Use captions to clarify the relevance of the image to the article (see [[#Captions|Captions]], below).
* Images should be inside the major section to which they relate (within the section defined by the most recent level 2 heading)
* Avoid sandwiching text between two images that face each other, or between an image and an infobox.
* See [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Picture tutorial#Avoiding stack-ups|this tutorial]] for how to group images, and avoid "stack-ups".
* It is often preferable to place images of faces so that the face or eyes look toward the text. Multiple images in the same article can be staggered right-and-left (for example, [{{fullurl:Timpani|oldid=427360690}} Timpani]). However, images should not be reversed simply to resolve a conflict between these guidelines; doing so misinforms the reader for the sake of mere layout preferences. An image should be reversed or substantially altered only if this clearly assists the reader (for example, cropping a work of art to focus on a detail discussed in the text). Any such alteration must be noted in the caption.
*The thumbnail option may be used ("<code>[[WPৱিকিপিডিয়া:PIC#thumb|thumb]]</code>"), or another size may be fixed. The default thumbnail width is 220&nbsp;pixels; users can adjust this in their [[m:Help:Preferences|preferences]]. An option such as "<code>|300[[WPৱিকিপিডিয়া:PIC#px|px]]|</code>" resizes the image to the specified width in pixels, and "<code>[[WPৱিকিপিডিয়া:PIC#upright|upright]]=1.2</code>" (or "<code>|[[WPৱিকিপিডিয়া:PIC#frameless|frameless]]|upright=1.2</code>" for [[WPৱিকিপিডিয়া:PIC#Plain pictures|plain pictures]]) resizes an image to approximately the given multiple of a user's preferred width. An image should generally be no more than 500&nbsp;pixels tall and 400&nbsp;pixels ("<code>upright=1.8</code>") wide, so it can be comfortably displayed next to the text on the smallest monitors in common use; an image can be wider if it uses the "<code>[[WPৱিকিপিডিয়া:PIC#center|center]]</code>" or "<code>[[WPৱিকিপিডিয়া:PIC#none|none]]</code>" options to stand alone. The {{tl|Wide image}} and {{tl|Tall image}} templates display images that would otherwise be unreasonably wide or tall.
 
*Examples where adjusting the size may be appropriate include the following:
:*Images containing important detail (for example, a map, diagram, or chart), and which may need larger sizes than usual to make them readable.
:*Images in which a small region is relevant, but cropping to that region would reduce the coherence of the image.
:*Large, panoramic images, which may require larger sizes to make them viewable or readable. ''For further information, refer to: [[Templateসাঁচ:Wide image|Template: Wide image]]''
 
* Use {{[[Templateসাঁচ:Commons|Commons]]}} to link to more images on Commons, wherever possible. The use of [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Picture tutorial#Galleries|galleries]] should be in keeping with [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Image use policy#Image galleries|Wikipedia's image use policy]].
*[[WPৱিকিপিডিয়া:ALT|Alt text]] takes the place of an image for text-only readers, including those using [[screen reader]]s. Images should have an [[WPৱিকিপিডিয়া:ALT|alt attribute]] added to the {{para|alt}} parameter. See [[WPৱিকিপিডিয়া:ALT]] for more information.
 
=== Avoid entering textual information as images ===
{{main|Wikipedia:Manual of Style (linking)}}
{{see|Help:Link}}
'''Make [[Helpসহায়:Link|links]] only where they are relevant and helpful in the context:''' Hyperlinks are distracting, and may slow the reader down. Redundant links (like {{!xt|the tallest people on [[Earth]]}}) clutter the page and make future maintenance harder. High-value links that ''are'' worth pursuing should stand out clearly.
 
'''Linking to sections:''' A hash sign&nbsp;(#) followed by the appropriate heading will lead to a relevant part of a page. For example, <code><nowiki>[[Apostrophe#Use in non-English names]]</nowiki></code> links to a particular section of the article [[Apostrophe]].
:* [http://history.nih.gov/exhibits/history/index.html History of NIH]
:* [http://www.nih.gov/ National Institutes of Health homepage]
Add external links with discretion; Wikipedia is [[WPৱিকিপিডিয়া:NOTLINK|not a link repository]].
 
== Miscellaneous ==
* cause disputes, since other editors may disagree aesthetically with the choice of style.
 
Outside article text, different font sizes are routinely used in navigation templates and [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Infobox|infoboxes]], tables (especially in larger ones), and some other contexts where alternatives are not available (such as table captions). Specify font sizes ''relatively'' (for example in CSS with <code>font-size: 80%</code>) rather than ''absolutely'' (like <code>font-size: 8pt</code>).
 
==== Color coding ====
=== Scrolling lists and collapsible content ===
{{shortcut|MOS:SCROLL|MOS:COLLAPSE}}
Scrolling lists and boxes that toggle text display between ''hide'' and ''show'' should not conceal article content, including reference lists, image galleries, and image captions. They especially should not be used to conceal "spoiler" information (see [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Spoiler]]). Collapsible ''sections'' or ''cells'' may be used in tables that consolidate information covered in the main text, [[WPৱিকিপিডিয়া:NAVBOX|navboxes]], or [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Manual of Style (infoboxes)|infoboxes]]. When scrolling lists or collapsible content are used, take care that the content will still be accessible on devices that do not support JavaScript or CSS.
 
=== Invisible comments ===
=== Pronunciation ===
{{main|Wikipedia:Manual of Style (pronunciation)}}
'''Pronunciation''' in Wikipedia is indicated using the [[International Phonetic Alphabet]] (IPA). In most situations, for ease of understanding by the majority of readers and across variants of the language, [[Phonetic transcription#Narrow versus broad transcription|quite broad]] IPA transcriptions are best for English pronunciations. See [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:IPA for English]] and [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:IPA]] (general) for keys, and {{tl|IPA}} for templates that link to these keys. For English pronunciations, [[Helpসহায়:Pronunciation respelling key|pronunciation respellings]] may be used ''in addition to'' the IPA.
 
== See also ==
<!-- This list is sorted alphabetically. When adding a link, also provide a short resume of the article. -->
* [[Helpসহায়:Wiki markup]] explains the codes and resources available for editing a page.
* [[Style guide]] contains links to the style guides of some magazines and newspapers.
* [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Annotated article]] is a well-constructed sample article, with annotations.
* [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Avoiding common mistakes]] gives a list of common mistakes and how to avoid them.
* [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Basic copyediting]] gives helpful advice on copy-editing.
* [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Be bold]] suggests a bold attitude toward page updates.
* [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Citing sources]] explains process and standards for citing references.
* [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Disinfoboxes]] shows how infoboxes are not always useful.
* [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Editing policy]] explains Wikipedia's general philosophy of editing.
* [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Elements of Style improvement project]].
* [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:How to edit a page]] is a short primer on editing pages.
* [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Introduction]] is a gentle introduction to the world of Wikipedia.
* [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Manual of Style (list of specialized Manual of Style articles)]].
* [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Policies and guidelines]] is the main stop for policies and guidelines.
* [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Reader]] stresses that the reader must be considered when editing.
* [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Requests for arbitration/Jguk]] was an [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Arbitration Committee|Arbitration Committee]] case on style edit-warring.
* [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Stub]] shows what to aim for when starting a new article.
* [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Version 1.0 Editorial Team/Style guide|Version 1.0 Editorial Team/Style guide]] lists some variations between the [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:Version 1.0 Editorial Team#Active projects|proposed printed versions of Wikipedia]] and the Manual of Style.
* [[Wikipediaৱিকিপিডিয়া:WikiProject]] introduces Wikipedia's system for collaborative development of related articles.
 
== Notes ==
{{reflist}}
 
== Style guides on other Wikimedia projects ==
*[http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Wikibooks:Manual_of_Style Wikibooks:Manual of Style – Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks]
*[http://en.wikinews.org/wiki/Wikinews:Style_guide Wikinews:Style guide – Wikinews, the free news source]
*[http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Wiktionary:Style_guide Wiktionary:Style guide – Wiktionary]
 
== Further reading ==
Wikipedians are encouraged to familiarize themselves with other [[Style guide|guides to style and usage]], which may cover details that are not included in this Manual of Style. Among these are:
{{refbegin}}
{{refend}}
 
== Search engines ==
*[http://www.onlinestylebooks.com/home.html OnlineStylebooks.com] (a stylebook search engine)
 
{{Style wide}}
 
[[Categoryশ্ৰেণী:General style guidelines]]
[[Categoryশ্ৰেণী:Wikipedia Manual of Style| ]]
 
[[Category:Wikipedia Manual of Style| ]]
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