সহায়:IPA for Spanish
(ৱিকিপিডিয়া:IPA for Spanishৰ পৰা পুনঃনিৰ্দেশিত)
- For terms that are more relevant to regions that have undergone yeísmo (so that, for example, hoya and holla are pronounced the same), words spelled with সাঁচ:Angle bracket can be transcribed with [ʝ]
- For terms that are more relevant to regions with seseo, (so that, for example, caza and casa are pronounced the same), words spelled with সাঁচ:Angle bracket and with soft সাঁচ:Angle bracket (i.e. where সাঁচ:Angle bracket occurs before সাঁচ:Angle bracket or সাঁচ:Angle bracket) can be transcribed with [s]
- In South Spain, Canarias and Caribbean countries, the phoneme [x] (সাঁচ:Angbr, soft সাঁচ:Angbr) is often realized as [h]
See Spanish phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Spanish.
- /b/, /d/, /ɡ/ and /ʝ/ are fricatives or approximants ([β̞, ð̞, ɣ̞, ʝ̞]; represented here without the undertacks) in all places except after a pausa, after an /n/ or /m/, or—in the case of /d/ and /ʝ/—after an /l/, in which contexts they are stops [b, d, ɡ, ɟʝ], not dissimilar from English b, d, g, j, except that they are fully voiced in all positions, unlike their English counterparts (Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté 2003:257-8).
- Most if not all Spanish speakers no longer distinguish /ʎ/ from /ʝ/; the actual realization depends on dialect, however. In Rioplatense Spanish (roughly southern South America), the ll is typically pronounced [ʃ] or [ʒ]. See yeísmo and Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:258) for more information.
- The nasal consonants /n, m, ɲ/ only contrast before vowels. Before consonants, they assimilate to the consonant's place of articulation. This is partially reflected in the orthography. Except in loanwords and proper nouns, only /n/ (that may also be produced as [ŋ] or nasalization of the preceding vowel, depending on dialect) occurs at the end of a word.
- The rhotic consonants /ɾ/ ‹r› and /r/ ‹rr› only contrast between vowels. Otherwise, they are in complementary distribution as ‹r›, with [r] occurring word-initially, after /l/, /n/, and /s/, and also represented here as before consonants, and word-finally (positions in which they vary); only [ɾ] is found elsewhere.
- Northern and central Spain still distinguish between "s" (/s/) and "soft c"/"z" (/θ/). Almost all other dialects treat the two as identical (which is called seseo) and pronounce them as /s/. There is a small number of speakers, mostly in southern Spain, who pronounce the soft "c", "z" and even "s" as /θ/, a phenomenon called ceceo. See seseo and Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:258) for more information.
- /θ/ has merged into /s/ in virtually all dialects outside of northern and central Spain. The only other exception is found in some southern communities where ceceo occurs and /s/ has actually merged into /θ/. See seseo and Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:258) for more information.
- /x/ is generally pronounced [h], as in the English word ham, in South Spain, Canarias and Caribbean countries.
- The letter "x" only represents this sound in certain proper nouns in the Americas (Oaxaca, Texas, and others).
- Allophone of /s/ before voiced consonants.
- Only used in loanwords and certain proper nouns. In many dialects, /ʃ/ is replaced by [tʃ] or [s]; e.g. show [tʃou]~[sou].
- Only used in loanwords and proper nouns from pre-Columbian indigenous languages
- The only time that the letter y ever indicates this sound alone is when it is used by itself as a word, meaning "and".
- In Spanish, the semivowels [w] and [j] can be combined with vowels to form rising diphthongs (e.g. cielo, cuadro). Falling diphthongs (e.g. aire, rey, auto) are transcribed with /i/ and /u/.
- Some speakers may pronounce word initial [w] with an epenthetic /ɡ/; e.g. Huila [ˈɡwila]~[ˈwila].
- Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association খণ্ড 33 (2): 255–259
- Animations and video demonstrations of the IPA for Spanish by The Departments of Spanish and Portuguese, German, Speech Pathology and Audiology, and Academic Technologies at the University of Iowa.
- Spanish Phonetic Transcription Converter—Free Online Tool to convert Spanish Text to IPA Phonetic Transcription
- Help with Spanish Homework - Receive help on your Spanish assignment